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Annotated Bibliography

of sources used in the development of the Literature Review Paper, which includes an APA formatted listing of 10-12 articles (minimum of 10 pages) to be used for the paper with an accompanying brief description of what each covers (to be written in the student’s own words—copying or paraphrasing the article abstract is not permitted), Articles cannot be older then ten years.


PSYCHOLOGY 5 Autism: How is it diagnosed? Autism is defined as a situation where there are impairments associated with growth and development of the brain. It is basically associated with impairments in social interaction, as well as verbal and nonverbal communication. These signs are noticeable at the age of two years. However, these signs develop gradually but some children with autism tend to reach their development stage normally and then change. Autism is caused by a combination of environmental factors as well as genetic. Autism that is caused by genetic is said to be complex. For example, if it result out of hereditary and the conditions happen to be high, then it is considered as primarily genetic. On the other hand, autism is also associated with infections that sometimes happen during pregnancy. A good example, in this case, is the one caused by the use of alcohol or other drugs like cocaine. (Speaks, A. 2011). To answer the question how autism is diagnosed, we need to focus our attention on the development changes that occur in a child. There is no medical test that can be used to diagnose autism. Therefore in this particular case, trained psychologists are used to administer autism. This is done through a specific behavioral evaluation test. However, it is very imperative to note that parents are always the first to notice any unusual behaviors in a child. Therefore some of the sign associated with autism include failure to maintain eye contact, and other weird behaviors that are not common in other children. In this regard, the first way of diagnosing kids is called the M-CHAT. This is conducted like an interview scenario where a specialist asks informative questions about a child. Therefore based on the type of answers gathered, then this gives a way ahead of whether the subject can be evaluated by a specialist. In this case, it could be a neurologist or other advanced specialists. In this particular case, parents are encouraged to find a doctor who will address this matter well and if further examination is necessary he/she can refer the matter to the appropriate specialists. Therefore efforts have been made by autism organizations to sensitize about autism signs to both physicians and parents. This basically means that every child below the age of two years should be thoroughly screened. This is to ensure that the developmental progress of a child is normal. The evaluations should involve hearing as well as using an autism-specific test like the one mentioned above. A typical diagnostic is another method used to diagnose autism victims. This approach involves using a team of specialized doctors from different fields. I.e. psychologist, therapist etc. This is another way of diagnosing autism. On the other hand, genetic testing is be very adamant combined with screening for other related medical issues. This comprehensive analysis of a child is important to parents because it helps them understand their children’s strengthens and needs. However, autism disorder can be diagnosed later in life especially in relation to difficulties encountered in life. For example socialization. Autism for an adult is simply diagnosed by observation or by involving interviews by a trained specialist. Due to the fact that they are no medical test for diagnosing autism, it is therefore conducted based on observation of an individual life. In most cases, however, this involves paying attention to the victim’s social interaction as well as their activities and interests. This is because some individuals suffering from autism tend to develop some interests that are weird compared to those of normal people. Because autism disorders are related to other disorders, it is, therefore, possible to conduct a medical test to identify other causes. In most cases people with autism tend to suffer from various symptoms especially associated with physical, behavior and mental conditions, therefore, medical professional who are well familiarized with autism can be able to conduct medical diagnoses. Therefore parents should be keen when looking for appropriate professionals. (Cicchetti, D. V., Volkmar, F., Klin, A., & Showalter, D. 1995) References Cicchetti, D. V., Volkmar, F., Klin, A., & Showalter, D. (1995). Diagnosing autism using ICD-10 criteria: A comparison of neural networks and standard multivariate procedures. Child Neuropsychology, 1(1), 26-37. Speaks, A. (2011). What is autism. Retrieved on November, 17, 2011.

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