add the following section (4 pages) to your paper: In 4 pages create a policy statement that outlines what you believe the primary priority of the U.S. law enforcement should be: fighting organized cr

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add the following section (4 pages) to your paper:

In 4 pages create a policy statement that outlines what you believe the primary priority of the U.S. law enforcement should be: fighting organized crime, or countering terrorism?

  • Offer research and data that support and justify your policy.
  • Why should the U.S. government adopt your policy?

Include a title page, abstract, and separate reference page.Additional Resources

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Center for Evidence-based Crime Policy

  • Since September 11, 2001 preventing terrorist attacks has increasingly become a role of local law enforcement agencies, particularly those serving large urban areas. Homeland security efforts by police cover a range of activities including providing extra security and presence at vulnerable targets, investigating tips and suspicious activities, and information sharing with state and federal partners to avoid future attacks.

Law Enforcement Partnerships

  • DHS website that describes how the federal government partners with the law enforcement community to combat terrorism with the first line of detectors.

Please submit your assignment.

add the following section (4 pages) to your paper: In 4 pages create a policy statement that outlines what you believe the primary priority of the U.S. law enforcement should be: fighting organized cr
Technology and Criminal Justice Privatization of Justice and Crime Versus Terrorism Name University Unit 4 Individual Project Date I. Introduction Today’s society must properly allocate law enforcement resources. The U.S. government must choose between organized crime and counterterrorism to protect national security and public safety. This essay studies American organized crime and terrorism, their effects, law enforcement activities, and resource allocation. Law enforcement prevents crime and terrorism. Police, resources, and investigations are allocated. Decisions should consider organized crime and terrorism in America. Counterterrorism or organized crime? One must study American organized crime, terrorism, and law enforcement to answer this question. The article will begin by defining a current criminal organization, its crimes, and competitor criminal organizations. Second, it will examine U.S. terrorism, both international and domestic, focusing on key attacks and their perpetrators. After the recorded history, the article will discuss organized crime and terrorism, their social repercussions, and law enforcement responses. Examine how law enforcement allocates resources to fight organized crime and terrorism. The essay will conclude by summarizing key issues, answering the research question based on analysis, and suggesting law enforcement resource allocation. This study examines American organized crime and terrorism history. It critically evaluates law enforcement efforts to inform resource allocation and the current discussion about how to improve national security and public safety. Cybercrime, the use of national identification cards, private prisons, non-governmental organizations, and the antisocial factors in relation to terrorism and organized crime will also be examined. II. Organized Crime Organized crime is exemplified by criminal activity perpetrated by groups of individuals working systematically together to achieve financial gain, power, or other benefits. This form of criminal activity can be described broadly. In the majority of instances, corruption involves sophisticated techniques such as bribery, extortion, money laundering, and unlawful trading. Even though these activities are typically directed at specific individuals or groups, as opposed to the general public or government, organized crime frequently employs intimidation and violence to ensure operations are carried out. Examples of organized crime range from large-scale fraud and white-collar crime to white-collar drug trafficking and human trafficking by the mafia. III. History of Organized Crime in America Overview of the Historical Development of Organized Crime in America American organized crime has a long history. It was caused by Prohibition (1920–1933), which outlawed alcohol. Bootlegging, speakeasies, and other alcohol-related criminal enterprises flourished during this time (Agee, 2017). Al Capone and the Chicago Outfit were famous during this time. Organized crime in the U.S. goes back deeper. The illicit dealings of Italian crime families, Irish mobs, Jewish syndicates, and Chinese secret societies encompassed betting, intimidation, harlotry, and narcotic exchange (Beittel, 2020). A dominant cartel trafficking drugs into North America is the Sinaloa. Functioning on either side of the boundary separating Mexico and America, the Sinaloa syndicate smuggles cocaine, opiates, methamphetamine, and cannabis into the nation. IV. Organizational Structure and Operations The Sinaloa Cartel is organized and hierarchical. It is led by the “Capo” or “Boss of Bosses” and has multiple factions or cells, each with a regional commander in charge of drug trafficking. They control medication manufacture, transportation, and distribution (Albarracín & Barnes, 2020). The cartel uses a huge network of affiliates and members to safeguard its interests and expand its area through violence, corruption, and intimidation. It smuggles drugs across the border through underground tunnels, truck compartments, and human couriers. The Sinaloa Cartel traffics drugs and commits other crimes to diversify its funding (Albarracín & Barnes, 2020). Money laundering, kidnapping, extortion, and arms trafficking are examples. These crimes strengthen the cartel. The Sinaloa Cartel was established by the notorious drug kingpin Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzmán. Extradition to the United States of America for Guzmán occurred in 2017. Multiple factions and leaders compete for cartel leadership. Ismael “El Mayo” Zambada, Juan José Esparragoza Moreno, and Rafael Caro Quintero are Sinaloa Cartel figures. Other U.S. organized criminal gangs exist outside the Sinaloa Cartel (Albanese, 2023). The Italian Mafia, or La Cosa Nostra, has historically committed crimes in America. The Gambino, Genovese, and Bonanno families have operated across the country. These families commit extortion, racketeering, loan sharking, and labor union corruption (Levi, 2020). The influence of Russian and Eurasian organized crime groups in the United States has expanded over the past few decades. These gangs engage in cybercrime, fraud, human trafficking, and money laundering. They have sophisticated criminal networks and ties to organized crime in their home countries. Chinese Triads and Vietnamese gangs operate in the U.S. (Lauchs, 2018) They traffic drugs, people, counterfeit items, and gamble. V. Overview of their Activities and Influence Violence, territorial disputes, and criminal alliances result from rival criminal organizations fighting for criminal enterprises. These criminal organizations pose a risk to national security, economic stability, and public safety (Kleemans & van Koppen, 2020). Law enforcement agencies can better target criminal organizations, disrupt their operations, and safeguard the American public by learning about organized crime’s origins, structure, and methods. VI. Terrorism Terrorism is the use or threat of physical force to compel or frighten a civilian population, government, or international organization for political, religious, or ideological reasons. Terrorists utilize suicide bombers, hostage-taking, and explosives to promote fear and chaos. Terrorists also attack innocent government-affiliated people or organizations for ideological reasons. Terrorist organizations have attacked places of worship, U.S. embassies in Africa, and September 11 sites. Terrorists want revenge and recognition. VII. History of Terrorism in America Domestic and foreign terrorism has plagued the U.S. Terrorism history is critical to law enforcement resource allocation. American efforts to combat terrorism date back several decades. Before September 11, 2001, the most devastating terrorist act on American territory was carried out by an American. Domestic Terrorism Domestic terrorism involves US-based people or groups with grievances or radical ideologies. The truck bomb Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols planted in Oklahoma City in 1995 exploded in front of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building. There were 168 fatalities, including 19 children, and 500 injuries (FBI, 2019). Anti-government and government overreach inspired the attack. The Unabomber (1978–1995) carried out a series of mail bombings. He targeted universities, airlines, and techies. The radical distaste for contemporary machinery and its harmful impacts on civilization incentivized the mass killings that bereaved countless lives and maimed innumerable others (FBI, 2019). The Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal assemblage in Charleston, South Carolina, endured bombardment by the racist Dylann Roof. He killed nine African American Bible study attendees. Racism drove the attack. Individuals with their ideals and grudges committed the above attacks. However, violent extremist groups or ideas can influence domestic terrorism. VIII. International Terrorism on U.S. Soil The dangers of terrorism have plagued the nation. The catastrophic collapse of the Twin Towers and assault on the Pentagon by Al-Qaeda operatives marked a bleak day of immense loss. Three thousand perished. At the celebrated Boston race, two brothers detonated explosives at the finish line, slaying a trio and maiming hundreds (Dammert & Sarmiento, 2018). Radical beliefs and grievances against foreign affairs fueled the Tsarnaevs’ sinister plot, highlighting the internal and external threats faced. To safeguard the country, law enforcement must thwart both varieties of terror (Albanese, 2023). Pivotal episodes have molded counterterror tactics. Grasping what spurs, principles, and means homegrown and foreign fiends employ is key to crafting useful strategies and assigning police assets. IX. Comparative Analysis: Organized Crime vs. Terrorism Organized crime and Terrorism rely on fear and intimidation to accomplish their objectives, even though each’s purposes are distinct. Both entail the employment of violent and non-violent strategies with the goal of preventing victims from coming forward and challenging the actions that are being carried out by the perpetrators. In addition, both have repercussions for the economic well-being and the sociopolitical order of the communities that are impacted by them. In the end, organized crime and terrorism pose a significant risk to public safety and need to be confronted with extreme care and awareness to be effectively addressed. X. Evaluation of the Threat Posed by 0rganized Crime Organized crime’s wide range of crimes and capacity to infiltrate numerous industries pose a major threat to society. Organized crime causes economic losses, violence, corruption, and lawlessness (Phillips, 2021). Organized crime gangs commit drugs, humans, money, extortion, and racketeering. Criminal groups profit from these acts, allowing them to grow (Albanese, 2023). Due to its resilience, global reach, and legal loopholes, organized crime thrives despite law enforcement attempts. Criminal organizations’ hierarchical structures and dispersed decision-making make identifying their leadership difficult (Beittel, 2020). While law enforcement has made major arrests and damaged criminal networks, rival criminal organizations remain a threat. XII. Evaluation of the Threat Posed by Terrorism Terrorism uses violence and fear to achieve political, ideological, or religious goals. Terrorism causes psychological trauma, social strife, and essential infrastructure damage. Domestic and international terrorist incidents targeting America necessitate useful counterterrorism tactics (Beittel, 2020). Of late, homegrown terrorism has received considerable notice. Radicals have executed assaults motivated by racial, faith-based, and political biases. Notably, one of the most lethal domestic terror incidents in national history was the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing perpetrated by a native citizen (Lauchs, 2018). Terrorist ideology and techniques evolve, making it important to understand this. XIII. Comparison of Resources Allocated to Fighting Organized Crime and Counterterrorism Current law enforcement resource allocation: The U.S. prioritizes counterterrorism. The Department of Homeland Security, specialized task forces, and intelligence units reflect this focus. Terrorism prevention, information collecting, and threat coordination need significant resources. Analysis of resource allocation rationale: Many factors influence counter-terrorism resource allocation. Terrorist acts like 9/11 have raised public and political pressure to prioritize counterterrorism (Phillips, 2021). Terrorism and extremism are global. Thus, international partners must collaborate and share intelligence. However, U.S. organized crime’s pervasiveness should be considered while allocating resources. Organized crime’s drug distribution, murder, and corruption impact communities daily, unlike terrorism (Phillips, 2021). The integrity of public safety and the criminal justice system depends on balancing resources to fight organized crime and terrorism. XIV. Cyber Crime 1. Cybercrime may be linked to organized crime in various ways. Hacking, identity theft, online fraud, ransomware attacks, and selling illegal products or services on the dark web are all examples of cybercrime activities that organized criminal gangs may participate in (Sabillon et al., 2016). These organizations often have sophisticated networks, resources, and experience to carry out large-scale cyber assaults, coordinate money laundering operations, and exploit digital system weaknesses. 2. Terrorists may use cybercrime to target the United States in various ways. They may conduct cyber-attacks against crucial infrastructure such as power grids, transportation networks, or financial institutions to cause disruption, economic harm, or loss of life. Terrorist groups may also use the internet for recruiting, radicalization, communication, and media distribution to disseminate their ideas and organize attacks. 3. Terrorists’ employment of cybercriminal methods may have serious consequences. It may result in economic losses, interruption of critical services, weakened national security, and even loss of life (Collier et al., 2022). Cyber-attacks on essential infrastructure or government systems may erode public confidence, instill fear, and disrupt societal functioning. Furthermore, terrorists’ use of the internet allows them to expand their reach and impact, improving their recruiting and radicalization skills. XV. National Identification Cards 1. National ID cards may help the US battle organized crime by improving identification verification procedures. These cards may include biometric data, such as fingerprints or face recognition information, which may aid in more precisely verifying a person’s identification (Ashbourn, 2014). Law enforcement authorities may better monitor and identify persons participating in organized crime operations by developing effective identification systems, making it more difficult for criminals to operate under fake names. 2. National Identification Cards may help in the battle against terrorism by increasing security and making it more difficult for terrorists to conceal their identities and travel freely. Enhanced identification systems may assist authorities in detecting persons with known terrorist links or those on watchlists, stopping them from entering sensitive regions, getting weapons, or carrying out clandestine assaults. 3. Several factors will determine the impact of issuing National Identification Cards  in the United States. National identification cards may enhance law enforcement capabilities, national security, and the ability to identify and track criminals and terrorists. Concerns regarding privacy, data security, and the misuse of personal information must be addressed (Chen & Zhao, 2012). To achieve positive outcomes, it is essential to establish a balance between safety and individual liberties. XVI. Anti-Social Factor A) Testing for anti-social factors in the United States requires thoroughly examining legal, ethical, and scientific issues. The purpose and intended outcomes would determine the procedures and techniques for such testing. It might include psychological tests, behavioral analyses, risk assessments, or a mix of these methods. B) Requiring the evaluation for anti-social factor testing may raise issues about infringing constitutional rights such as privacy, due process, or the right to remain silent (Sanders et al., 2010). Any testing or examination that violates these rights must be carefully examined against the legal framework, ensuring that adequate protections, consent, and supervision measures are in place. C) Identifying people who may require anti-social factor testing would be time-consuming. Indicators such as behavioral patterns, criminal background, intelligence reports, or particular risk factors connected with threats should be included. It is nevertheless essential to ensure that identification methods do not result in profiling, discrimination, or unjustified targeting of people based on their race, religion, or other protected characteristics. XVII. Non-governmental police or security forces Private police or security organizations may help battle organized crime. They often have specialized information, skills, and resources that may help government law enforcement forces (Ott, 2010). Private security guards may help secure sites, perform investigations, provide security recommendations, and provide surveillance services. However, their legal structure, collaboration with public agencies, and adherence to laws limit their ability to fight organized crime. B) Involving private police or security organizations in the fight against organized crime may have both beneficial and harmful consequences. On the plus side, private agencies may contribute more personnel, knowledge, and technology, improving the overall efficacy of law enforcement activities. They may also add novel techniques and adaptability to security concerns. Concerns about accountability, transparency, and conflicts of interest are drawbacks. Proper monitoring and regulation are critical to ensuring private forces follow the law and protect civil freedoms. C) Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) may work with the government to assist the United States in tackling organized crime (Willetts, 2010). Collaboration between the public and commercial sectors may result in a more comprehensive approach to tackling security issues. Such cooperation includes information exchange, collaborative operations, specialized training, and resource-sharing efforts. Clear norms, legal frameworks, and accountability procedures must be established to avoid abuses and preserve people’s rights. XVIII. Private Prisons (A) Terrorists and members of organized crime should not be held in private prisons. These people’s detention raises complicated security and public safety problems that need careful government control and accountability (Hesterman, 2013). Profit-driven private prisons may lack the resources, knowledge, or incentives to manage and rehabilitate such high-risk criminals properly. The possibility of compromised security measures and poor rehabilitation programs in private institutions raises serious concerns about public safety and the possibility of continuing criminal activity. As a result, it is best to depend on government-run correctional facilities that prioritize the security and rehabilitation of these individuals openly and responsibly. B) In a few aspects, private facilities may be more beneficial for organized criminals and terrorists. First, there may be worries regarding the financial motivation of private prisons since the emphasis on cost-cutting and revenue maximization may jeopardize the quality of services offered. Furthermore, private jails may lack the same control, transparency, and accountability as public institutions, fostering a climate conducive to abuse and wrongdoing. Regardless of the kind of prison, it is critical to ensure that inmate security and rehabilitation remain top priorities. C) If private prisons were solely utilized for organized crime and terrorism, the United States may face various consequences (Hesterman, 2013). On the one hand, it may provide a specialized setting for dealing with individuals engaged in significant criminal activity, allowing for focused security measures and rehabilitation programs adapted to their unique requirements. Conversely, it may raise concerns about power concentration, conflicts of interest, and unfair treatment of various groups within the criminal justice system. Furthermore, the privatization of prisons should be thoroughly scrutinized to ensure that the primary emphasis remains on public safety, rehabilitation, and human rights respect. XIX. Conclusion A comparative study shows that organized crime and terrorism constitute major challenges to society. Organized crime’s impact on society is far-reaching, unlike terrorism’s high-profile attacks. The U.S. must balance law enforcement resources between organized crime and counterterrorism. The allocation should reflect the changing nature of threats and the necessity for proactive actions to disrupt criminal networks and prevent terrorism. Tackling organized crime and terrorism requires cooperation, intelligence sharing, and targeted enforcement. To ensure long-term success, tackling socioeconomic problems and ideological extremism should be part of a complete approach. Based on this analysis, the U.S. government should prioritize prevention, intelligence gathering, and targeted enforcement to protect public safety and the criminal justice system. References Agee, C. L. (2017). Crisis and Redemption: The History of American Police Reform since World War II. Journal of Urban History, 46(5), 951–960. Ashbourn, J. (2014). Biometrics: advanced identity verification: the complete guide. Springer. Albanese, J. S. (2023). Development and Surges of Organized Crime: An Applicatiosn of Enterprise Theory. 11–24. Albarracín, J., & Barnes, N. (2020). Criminal Violence in Latin America. Latin American Research Review, 55(2), 397–406. Appelbaum, P. S., & Scurich, N. (2014). Impact of behavioral genetic evidence on the adjudication of criminal behavior. The journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 42(1), 91. Beittel, J. (2020). Mexico: Organized Crime and Drug Trafficking Organizations (pp. 1–43). Congressional Research Service. Berryessa, C. M., & Cho, M. K. (2013). Ethical, legal, social, and policy implications of behavioral genetics. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, 14, 515-534. Chen, D., & Zhao, H. (2012, March). Data security and privacy protection issues in cloud computing. In 2012 international conference on computer science and electronics engineering (Vol. 1, pp. 647-651). IEEE Collier, B., Thomas, D. R., Clayton, R., Hutchings, A., & Chua, Y. T. (2022). Influence, infrastructure, and recentering cybercrime policing: evaluating emerging approaches to online law enforcement through a market for cybercrime services. Policing and Society, 32(1), 103-124. Cyber Crime. (2022, December 22). Federal Bureau of Investigation., L., & Sarmiento, K. (2018). Corruption, Organized Crime, and Regional Governments in Peru. Corruption in Latin America, 179–204. Dammert, L., & Sarmiento, K. (2018). Corruption, Organized Crime, and Regional Governments in Peru. Corruption in Latin America, 179–204. FBI. (2019). Organized Crime. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Hesterman, J. L. (2013). The terrorist-criminal nexus: An alliance of international drug cartels, organized crime, and terror groups. CRC Press. Junewicz, A., & Billick, S. B. (2021). Preempting the Development of Antisocial Behavior and Psychopathic Traits. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 49(1), 66–76. Kleemans, E., & van Koppen, V. (2020). Organized Crime and Criminal Careers. Crime and Justice, 49(1), 385–423. Lauchs, M. (2018). Are Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs Organized Crime Groups? An Analysis of the Finks MC. Deviant Behavior, 40(3), 287–300. Levi, M. (2020). Making Sense of Professional Enablers’ Involvement in Laundering Organized Crime Proceeds and of their Regulation. Trends in Organized Crime. Organized Crime. (2023, April 10). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Ott, T. P. (2010). US law enforcement strategies to combat organized crime threats to financial institutions. Journal of Financial Crime, 17(4), 375-386. Phillips, B. J. (2021). How Did 9/11 Affect Terrorism Research? Examining Articles and Authors, 1970–2019. Terrorism and Political Violence, 35(2), 1–24. Sabillon, R., Cavaller, V., Cano, J., & Serra-Ruiz, J. (2016, June). Cybercriminals, cyberattacks and cybercrime. In 2016 IEEE International Conference on Cybercrime and Computer Forensic (ICCCF) (pp. 1-9). IEEE. Sanders, A., Young, R., & Burton, M. (2010). Criminal justice. Oxford University Press Terrorism. (2023, May 25). Federal Bureau of Investigation. The White House. (2023, April 24). Joining Forces | The White House. Willetts, P. (2010). Non-governmental organizations in world politics: The construction of global governance (Vol. 49). Routledge.

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