Annotated Bibliography Assignment
In order to complete the Research Essay, you will need to do research. One of the more useful tools in conducting research is the annotated bibliography. An annotated bibliography combines the citations found with annotations about each of the sources. For this assignment, you will construct an annotated bibliography based upon the topic of the essay.
Topic of the essay:
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This paper will focus on how the Pax Romana art period has impacted contemporary visual art and architecture.
The Pax Romana art period is characterized by the visual arts and the famous architecture in the Roman Empire at that time.
- Cite the source in proper MLA format. The citations should be organized in alphabetical order by author just as in an MLA Works Cited page.
- Follow with a brief annotation that summarizes each of the source (approx. 3-5 sentences). You may quote from the source, but do not copy and paste the abstract. Ideally, all of the annotation should be in your own words.
-5 separate sources that include one of each of the following:
*One Class Reading ( I have attached a file for the class lecture )
*Book ( I have attached the file for chapter 6 from the Book)
*The final source will be of your choosing
-Adherence to MLA Format (12 Point Font, Times New Roman Font, Double Space, etc.)
-Correct grammar, spelling and punctuation.
-Sources are focused around the topic laid out in the essay prompt.
-Each notation is to be a brief summary of the source
Annotated Bibliography Assignment In order to complete the Research Essay, you will need to do research. One of the more useful tools in conducting research is the annotated bibliography. An annota
CLASS READING Roman Literature CONSIDER: How does the practicality of Roman stoicism help shape Roman society and its various forms of creative expressions? Roman Literature: Philosophic Thought & Seneca: -Romans are more practical than philosophical & left very few conrtibutions to philosophy -instead of adding new philosophical systems, Romans preserved the work of Hellenistic writers & thinkers -Roman stoicism: believed that an impersonal (Providence or Divine Reason) governed the world happiness is in one’ s ability to accept the will of the universe rejected any emotional attachments that might enslave them the ideal spiritual condition depends on self-control and subjugation of emotions to reason Stoicism encourages the Roman sense of duty Strong belief in equality of all people Seneca & Didactic Prose: In On T ranquility of Mind Seneca argues that one may achieve peace of mind by avoiding burdensome responsibilities, gloomy companions & excessive wealth through his support & expression of Roman stoicism Seneca demonstrates how stoicism of fers a reasoned retreat from psychic pain & moral despair stoicism provides practical set of solutions to the daily strife between the self & society Epic Poetry & V irgil: V irgil (70-19 B.C.E.) was Rome’ s foremost poet-publicist wrote the semilegendary epic that immortalized Rome’ s destiny as world ruler- The Aeneid The Aeneid: Not the product of oral tradition The hero is Rome’ s mythical founder, Aeneas who takes a long journey filled with adventures that test his intelligence, strength & prowess First 6 books recount hero’ s voyage from T roy to Italy & a love af fair with the Carthaginian princess Dido. Second 6 books describe the Trojan conquest of Latium & the establishment of Rome. Satire & Juvenal: Juvenal (ca. 60-130 B.C.E.): Rome’ s most famous satirist Satire: the use of humor , irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people’s stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues. Juvenal came from the Roman provinces, was a magistrate and experienced poverty & financial failure Held extremely negative view of Roman society , which he describes & criticizes in 16 Satires (sees Rome as greedy & corrupt) Against the City of Rome: Describes Rome as noisy , dirty, crowded urban community inhabited by selfish, violent & self-indulgent people Against Women: equally hostile against foreigners & women; he laments the disappearance of the chaste Latin woman whose virtues who have been corrupted by luxury and excessive wealth T he R om an R is e to E m pir e CONSIDER: How is a nation’s wealth related to the rise of an Empire? How is stability important to the founding of a nation? Rome’ s Early History: Image of Rome: Roman-Empire Map.jpg download -Roman origins are linked to Iron Age people called Latins -The Latins founded Rome in lower valley of the T iber River by mid 8 th century B.C.E. -central Italy was domain of the Latins but rest of peninsula received infusion of estersn Mediterraneans, such as the Etrsucans, Greeks & Phoenecians, who brought their cultures -Etruscan influence: fundamentals of urban planning chariot racing the toga bronze & gold crafting Mesopotamian architecture *Roman numerals were based on an Etrsucan system that was borrowed from the Greeks *from Etruscans came the founding myth of the twin sons of Mars- Romulus and Remus Romulus & Remus: abandoned on the Tiber river , raised by a she-wolf -Greek influence: the pantheon of the Gods & goddesses (changed names) linguistic & literary principles aesthetics of the Classical style (especially Hellenistic era) -Phoenecian influence: alphabet commercial & maritime skills The Roman Republic (509 -133 B.C.E.): -ruled by Etrsucan king for 3 centuries, the Latins overthrew them & over 200 years a monarchy developed into a republic (res publica “of the people”) -elements of the republic: Patricians: powerful class of landowners (& life members of Senate) Plebeians: more populous class of of farmers & small landowners Imperium: civil & military authority Consuls: 2 elected magistrates T ribunes: leaders/representatives of the Plebeians -Res publica was arrived at through peaceful means through Plebeians gaining power over time -Once Res publica was achieved, movement towards empire began -obedience to the Roman state & service in the army were essential to life in Rome -long wars of conquest laid the foundation for Imperial Rome Punic W ars (150 years against the Phoenecians & Carthage) By end of first century B.C.E. Empire includes North Africa, Iberian peninsula, Greece, Egypt, much of Southwest Asia, present day Europe as far as the Rhine river -Romans were ef ficient administrators, brought Latin language & Roman laws to conquered territories, as well as paved roads, freshwater aqueducts, bridges and Roman citizenship -Army: highly disciplined, consisted of citizens serving 2-year terms, which could also become one’ s profession; serving in the army as a career was a path towards citizenship for foreigners and a method of Romanizing them Collapse of the Republic (133-30 B.C.E.): -Rise of the power of the army , senate & a new class of wealthy Roma entrepreneurs, called Equestrians, is the beginning of the end for the Republic and first steps towards Empire -slaves from conquests were shipped back to Rome and worked on large plantations, called latifundias which increased agricultural production & wealth -small famers were forced to sell land, army generals became wealthy from conquest booty & metals: wealth (and the power gained from it) was being concentrated in a small portion of Roman population -eventually , Rome is taken over by generals, military dictators which fueled several civil wars JULIUS CAESAR: Image of Julius Caesar: green-schist-bust-of-julius-caesar-with-marble-eyes- hellenistic-art-1-50-a-d_u-l-poof2g0.jpg download 46 B.C.E.: Gaius Julius Caesar takes power & establishes his dictatorship “V eni, V idi, Vici” I came, I saw , I conquered: Julius Caesar ’s statement on his success in the Galic wars codified laws regulated taxation reduced debts sent unemployed proletaritas to overseas colonies inaugurated public works projects laid out the first urban center-The Forum granted citizenship to non-Italians reformed the W estern calendar to comprise 365 days & 12 months *Marcus Junius Brutus & a group of senators assassinated Julius Caesar in 44 B.C.E. Caesar would be used as an honorific title by his successors The Roman Empire (30 B.C.E.-180 C.E.): -after Julius’ death, power struggle between Mark Anthony & Octavian occurs, Octavian emrges victorious after the naval battle at Actium in 31 B.C.E. -Octavian gained the approval of the senate, calls himself princeps (“first citizen”), and becomes Emeperor . Senate bestows the title Augustus (“the Revered One”) Image of (Octavian) Augustus Caesar: Augustus of Primaporta 1.jpg download Augustus of Primaporta 2.jpg download -Octavian Augustus’ reign ushered in the Pax Romana (30 B.C.E.-180 C.E.), the Roman Peace active commercial contact with all parts of the world, including India & China Attempted to stop moral decay , restore family values, begetting of legitimate children passed laws to curb adultery & prevent bachelors from receiving inheritance enthusiastic patron of the arts; commissioned literature, sculpture & architecture initiated many public works (3 new aqueducts, 500 fountains) created a police department & fire department *beginning of Christianity