Ans the following question in-brief essay form (20 lines each) : 1. Describe the importance of the Royal Proclamation of 1763. 2. What role does terminology play in terms of understanding Indigenous P

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Ans the following question in-brief essay form (20 lines each) :

1. Describe the importance of the Royal Proclamation of 1763.

2. What role does terminology play in terms of understanding Indigenous

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Peoples? Focus on the Canadian context.

3. Why were alliances so important in Indigenous histories? (use examples)

4. Describe importance of oral stories in Indigenous communities (use examples)

5. Discuss the various types of first contact interactions include differing

perspectives on these from the perspectives of Indigenous Peoples and the

European Peoples that came to North America.

6. Describe how daily life and culture were shaped by adaptations to the various

ecozones found across Canada. Include discussion of three examples.

Ans the following question in-brief essay form (20 lines each) : 1. Describe the importance of the Royal Proclamation of 1763. 2. What role does terminology play in terms of understanding Indigenous P
Unit 1 The Place of Native Studies in the Curriculum Native Studies provides students at the University of Manitoba with a broad range of knowledge related to Indigenous peoples. The purpose of Native Studies courses is to help students better understand Indigenous issues of public interest discussed at the local, regional, and national levels. In this course you will develop the skills necessary to discuss issues and participate in public discourse. Through their involvement in Native studies, you will increase your awareness and understanding of the history, cultures, world views, and contributions of Indigenous peoples in Canada and develop skills necessary to discuss these issues. This course will also provide you with opportunities to enhance your problem-solving and critical-thinking skills which are important to continued study in post-secondary education, the world of work, and your role as an active Canadian citizen. By its very nature, Native Studies is integrative or interdisciplinary. For example, when you examine the terms of a treaty negotiated by an Indigenous nation with the Crown (federal government), you are combining both Native Studies and History. Similarly when you use the works of Indigenous writers to study the theme of renewal, you are combining Native Studies and English. You should also note, this is a W rated course therefore an important part of your learning and assessment in this course is your writing. What role does terminology play in terms of understanding Indigenous people? In this Native studies course, you will examine the cultures and history of Indigenous peoples in Canada. What is currently Canada is the land of origin for Indigenous peoples, and the history of Canada begins with them. As the first people of this land, Indigenous peoples are unique in and integral to Canada’s mosaic. Thus, exploration of the development and contributions of Indigenous societies is central to an understanding of the social fabric of this country. The three Indigenous groups in Canada recognized by law (Constitution Act) are First Nations, Inuit, and Métis. First Nations people appear on the Indian register (Indian Act) in Ottawa. Each person whose name appears on the Indian register is a registered Indian, who has been assigned a registration number and is considered to be a Status Indian under the Indian Act. They may or may not belong to a band. Those who do not belong to a band are on a general list. Those who do belong to a band have their name and number on a band list. The Indian Act applies only to these people. If a non-Aboriginal child is adopted by registered Indian parents, the child legally becomes an Indian. Since 1985, if one of the parents is not a Status Indian, the child has 6(2) status, which is reduction from the 6(1) status granted to those who have two Status Indian parents. People with 6(2) status cannot pass on Indian status if their child has one non-Status parent. Those who are not registered in Ottawa under the Indian Act, are considered to be Non-Status Indians. The Inuit are recognized as Indigenous people and are registered in Ottawa, but the Indian Act does not apply to the Inuit. The Inuit do not have reserves. They have received Indigenous title to the lands in the North that are recognized as belonging to them by the federal and territorial governments. The Métis are recognized as an Indigenous group in Canada under the Constitution. Legal recognition is so recent (1982) that the courts have not yet passed rulings on what rights apply to the Métis as a distinct group within Canada. The Métis were originally descended from intermarriages between First Nations and Europeans in times of early contact, but many Métis today have Métis ancestors going back several generations. The Métis are a distinct Indigenous nation; when discussing the Métis, emphasize nationhood, rather than biology (e.g. “mixed-blood” or “mixedness”). A Métis may have the stereotypical appearance of an Indigenous person, or appear non-Indigenous, or have a mixture of characteristics. The Métis do not have the same status as First Nations or Inuit. The Indian Act does not apply to the Métis. However, many Métis have suffered from discrimination because of their First Nations or Métis heritage (which will be discussed in later unit 8). First Nations people belong to distinct cultural groups referred to as Nations. Some of these cultural groups or Nations are similar while others are different (we will be discussing some of the various Nations in Unit 2). Certain First Nations people may have extensive knowledge about their culture, practicing and living it daily (e.g., living by a traditional code of ethics as implied in the ancient teachings). Others may live in much the same way as their non-Indigenous neighbours, having assimilated into the culture of the majority. Individuals may have assimilated either by circumstance or by choice. Many non-Registered Indians (Non-Status Indians) may have First Nations characteristics, and may identify with the heritage of a specific group or Nation. Though, they may not be registered Indians, they may have First Nations identified features and follow traditional ways. (They have the characteristics of First Nations people, but are not recognized as having Indian status.). A person born to Métis parents, however, may have been raised by First Nations grandparents. This individual may share the culture and appearance of a First Nations person, but would not be recognized as having Indian status. As the different cultural group members meet individuals of diverse ethnic backgrounds and produce children, the possible combinations of legal, cultural, and racial backgrounds become increasingly complex. Indigenous Peoples and Communities in Canada and Manitoba Six geographic areas populated by Indigenous peoples of common cultures existed in what is now Canada at the time of first contact with Europeans. The areas and examples of the peoples who lived in them are: Northwest Coast (e.g., Salish, Haida) Plateau (e.g., Kootenay) Plains (e.g., Blackfoot, Plains Cree) Sub-Arctic (e.g., Dene, Swampy & Rocky Cree) Eastern Woodlands (e.g., Anishinaabe, Micmac) Arctic (e.g., Inuit) In Manitoba, First Nation peoples belong to the following Nations: Dakota Anishinaabe (Ojibway) Nehiyaw (Cree) Oji-Cree Dene Other Indigenous Groups of Manitoba: Metis Inuit Indigenous Organizations: The diversity of the Indigenous population has led to the creation of a wide variety of Indigenous political and interest groups, including the following: the Assembly of First Nations (representing Status Indian peoples) the Congress of Aboriginal Peoples (Representing Non-Status Indian peoples) the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (Representing Inuit peoples) the Métis National Council (Representing Métis peoples in the provinces of Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta & British Columbia) the Native Women’s Association of Canada (Representing Indigenous women from across Canada) Customs, Traditions and Little Known Facts – Tradition: The Language of the Circle Circles represent important principles in the Indigenous worldview and belief systems –namely, interconnectedness, equality, and continuity. According to traditional teaching, the seasonal pattern of life and renewal and the movement of animals and people were continuous, like a circle, which has no beginning and no end. Circles suggest inclusiveness and the lack of a hierarchy. They are found throughout nature – for instance, in the movement of the seasons and the sun’s movement from east to west during the day. Circles are also used in the construction of tipis and sweat lodges; and the circular willow hoop, medicine wheel, and dream catcher are powerful symbols. Talking circles symbolize completeness and equality. All circle participants’ views must be respected and listened to. All comments directly address the question or the issue, not the comments another person has made. In the circle, an object that symbolizes connectedness to the land – for example, a stick, a stone, or a feather – can be used to facilitate the circle. Only the person holding the “talking stick” has the right to speak. Participants can indicate their desire to speak by raising their hands. Going around the circle systematically gives everyone the opportunity to participate. Silence is also acceptable – any participant can choose not to speak. TRADITION: Different but Similar The Algonquian (Cree, Anishinaabe, Micmac, etc.) and Iroquoian (Seneca, Mohawk, Huron, etc.) groups are broad, language-based groups. Within each group, there are a number of different nations. Languages and dialects differ among the nations, depending on their location and traditional knowledge, and their ways of life may also vary slightly. CUSTOM: Multi-Cultural It is important for students to realize, when they are comparing and contrasting groups, that cultural groups were not and continue not to be homogeneous entities. First Nation peoples, French settlers, French fur traders, and English fur traders were as diverse within their group as they were cross-culturally. Cultural similarities were not the only factors that came into play when different First Nation groups were deciding with whom they would align. Some of the variables included, but were not limited to, geographic proximity, language, lifestyle, the degree to which First Nation groups chose to convert to Christianity, and the degree to which groups saw themselves as useful to one another’s goals. FACT: Indigenous and Mainstream Media In the past, mainstream media have often misrepresented Indigenous peoples. Media portrayals of Indigenous peoples (such as the “Wild West Indian”, “protesting warrior”, and sports team mascots) can sometimes be offensive to First Nation, Inuit, and Métis peoples in Ontario. Today, Indigenous people combat stereotypes by creating their own media on radio, on television, and in print. Many Indigenous media sources, such as the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network (APTN), and local Indigenous community radio stations, magazines, and newspapers, attempt to paint an accurate, contemporary picture of Indigenous peoples. TRADITION: Giving Thanks In their thanksgiving celebrations, Indigenous people show gratefulness through prayers of thanks for the abundant gifts and provisions (animals, plants, water, etc.) the Creator has given them. FACT: Aboriginal Contributions to Technology and Invention People invent and discover technologies to meet their wants and needs. Indigenous people have made many contributions to Canada and the world through their invention of such things as petroleum jelly, chewing gum, the canoe, and snowshoes, and the growing of corn, beans and squash (plants that did not exist in Europe until after contact). Indigenous people’s inventions have allowed them to survive in their environments for centuries, and have contributed to the contemporary world. CUSTOM: Food Preservation Every group of people throughout the world has developed ways of storing food for future use. While early hunters and gatherers sometimes enjoyed plentiful and nutritious food, during periods of drought and times when access to food was limited for other reasons, they experienced famine and malnutrition. Gradually they developed preservation techniques that allowed them to store food for use during times when fresh food would not be available. People learned to preserve food by drying it – a process that allowed them to maintain a stable and varied supply of food. Since dried food is much lighter than fresh food, this preservation method had the added advantages of being ideal for journeys, such as a buffalo hunt, and easier to transport for trading purposes. FACT: Current and Historical Issues: Indigenous and Treaty Rights As the original inhabitants of what is now Canada, First Nation, Métis, and Inuit people have a variety of Indigenous and treaty rights, including land rights and the right to maintain their culture. These existing rights are protected by the Constitution Act, 1982. Numerous Aboriginal records (such as wampum belts, oral tradition) and non-Indigenous documents (such as written treaties, acts, laws, proclamations, and agreements) outline Indigenous peoples’ rights in Canada. The rights of Indigenous peoples have come into conflict with the rights of the non-Indigenous majority on numerous occasions. There are many instances, both contemporary and historical, in which Indigenous peoples’ rights have been denied (e.g., loss of rights for Indigenous women; rights to land, voting, and natural resources). (write approx. 400 words) What is Native Studies? Throughout this unit, you have learned about the core concepts of Native Studies, stereotypes, differences in terminology, and a host of other topics related to the general field of Native Studies and the experiences of Indigenous peoples.  In this unit reflection, please consider what Native Studies is (beyond just reciting what Kulchyski argues in his article) and why this field may or may not be important in contemporary Canadian society.
Ans the following question in-brief essay form (20 lines each) : 1. Describe the importance of the Royal Proclamation of 1763. 2. What role does terminology play in terms of understanding Indigenous P
Unit 2 How many people were there? In the pre-contact era, before Europeans began sailing across the Atlantic Ocean in search of a route to Asia, Indigenous peoples were distributed unevenly across the Canadian landscape. Most scholars will agree that population density varied according to the ability of the lands to support human life. However, this is where agreement ends, with the size of Canada’s Indigenous population continuing to be a disputed and debated issue today. Thoronton (1987) using a procedure called “standard hemispheric depopulation ratio” has estimated the population to be slightly more than 2 million, while Mooney (1928) estimates Canada’s population to be close to 200,000 based on tribe-by-tribe estimates from historical materials. Kroeber (1963) takes an environmental carrying capacity approach to reach a similar number, while 500,000 is the number now accepted by Canada’s Royal Commission on Aboriginal Health which is derived from averaging low and high estimates. None of these estimates have been determined using methods rigorous enough to be considered credible by the scientific community which is why the debate continues. But, there is no debate on another claim as scholars can all agree: the Indigenous population decreased dramatically after the arrival of the Europeans. Who were the original inhabitants of Canada? One way to look at the traditional cultures of Indigenous peoples is to consider the culture areas they inhabited before contact with Europeans. A culture area is a geographic region in which different peoples share similar culture traits. Canada’s first inhabitants can be divided into two cultural groups, the First Nations Peoples and the Inuit, and within these two groups subdivided further based on small divisions of geographic areas and culture. All Indigenous groups had their own unique cultures long before contact with Europeans and current media often makes the mistake of lumping all Indigenous people together. You will see that there are many different cultural groups within the blanket terms we use to refer to First Nations or Inuit. Remember that culture refers to the ways of life that a people share, language, food, clothes, tools, religion, government, and artistic expression as we are exploring these characteristics in more detail throughout this unit. The First Nations Peoples First Nations peoples inhabited five different culture areas throughout the regions known today as Canada. The five major culture areas were: Subarctic, Northwest Coast, Plateau, Plains, and Northeastern Woodlands. Each region offered different natural resources and a variety of climates to the peoples who lived there. Different First Nations within each culture area adopted similar ways of life—similar cultures—because they lived within similar conditions. However the many different First Nations peoples spoke more than 50 different languages and lived diverse life styles shaped by their particular environment. Although different most First Nations languages within a culture area were part of a language family. A language family is a group of languages that have all developed from one common language in the past, called a proto-language. Unifying Factors contributing to First Nations Culture: Oral History, Spirituality, and Ceremony All First Nations told stories orally to preserve the knowledge, experiences, and beliefs of its people. These stories are still told today. They make up each nation’s oral history. Storytellers told stories about actual events in the history of a nation and to teach lessons about everyday life. Oral histories also enabled First Nations to pass down religious and spiritual knowledge through the generations for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. Shamans were the guardians of this religious knowledge—the mythologies and ceremonies. Religious and spiritual ceremonies were rich and diverse among First Nations. Shamans would often preside over these ceremonies, examples of which were the sundance of Plains nations, winter ceremonies of Northwest Coast nations, and shaking tent ceremonies of Subarctic nations. One example of an individual’s spirituality was the vision quest. A young person, before or at puberty, would go alone to a wilderness area to fast and meditate. The purpose was for the young person to receive a vision or a dream. They sought to gain a guardian spirit power to support and protect them through life. Though the religious beliefs and ceremonies among First Nations were varied, some ideas were shared among most First Nations—ideas that are still held today. One example is The Great Spirit or Creator who created Earth and all things on it. Storytellers passed down many different creation stories. For example, many creation stories describe the Great Spirit diving into the primeval water to dig up mud, from which he made the Earth. Other creation stories might involve a changeling or transformer (Nanabooshoo in Anishinaabe or Wesakechak in Nehiyaw) who takes light, fire, water, food, animals, and people. The Trickster sets all these elements loose, which creates the world as it is now. All living and non-living things that the Creator made are interrelated in a great circle of life. Because each thing on Earth has a spirit, it should be respected and cared for. For example, when taking the life of a plant or animal, a First Nations person pays respect to its spirit. First Nations hunters have great respect for and gratitude to the animals they kill for human survival. Hunters offer or burn tobacco to acknowledge this gift of animal life. Inuit Inuit and their ancestors are the Indigenous peoples who lived in the Arctic for thousands of years before Europeans arrived. The Arctic is a vast region that is north of the Arctic Circle. The Inuit developed ways of life that were highly adapted to the harsh Arctic environment. Like First Nations people the borders of what is now Canada did not apply to Inuit cultural groups. The Inuit can be sub-divided into eight distinct cultural groups: Labrador, Ungava, Baffin Island, Iglulik, Caribou, Netsilik, Mackenzie and Copper Inuit peoples, based on geographic location. Although all Inuit people at this time spoke the same language—Inuktitut—each group spoke a different dialect. Most of these Inuit groups still exist today, and many Inuit still live in the traditional Arctic areas in which their ancestors lived. Unifying Factors contributing to Inuit Culture: Cooperation, Resourcefulness, and Oral history Although there are variations in landforms and climate throughout the Arctic, there are aspects of the environment that are similar throughout the Arctic region. For example, Arctic winters are long and extremely cold with few hours of daylight. Summers are relatively short, but with many hours of daylight and moderate temperatures. No trees grow in the Arctic, but there are low, shrubby plants, many of which produce edible berries. These factors affected evolution of culture for all Inuit groups who lived throughout the Arctic region. The Inuit lived in small bands comprised of two to five families. Close cooperation and sharing among families was a critical feature of Inuit life because it was important for survival in such a harsh climate. Hunting was often a collaborative activity, where many men would work together to catch larger game and the catch would be distributed evenly throughout the band. If one family were in difficulty, either more resources would be given to them or children would be re-distributed to other band members until difficulties were overcome. If an elder felt they could no longer contribute to the band, he or she would wander away from the group to die on the land, rather than consume the hard won resources of the group. Because of the scarcity of resources, nothing was allowed to waste and everything available in the environment was used. One of the most iconic examples of this is the igloo. The snow-house style of igloo—today considered a major technological success—was made from blocks of packed snow (not ice) and built into a dome. It might hold up to 20 people. Long tunnel entrances provided storage space; the entrance tunnel opened into the house below floor level. Inside, there would be cooking pots, oil lamps, and low platforms for sleeping and sitting. Some Inuit lined the walls with caribou skins for insulation. Some snow houses even had a window set in the roof made of clear lake ice. Some groups would live in snow houses through the winter, while others, such as the Labrador Inuit, might live in a different style of igloo—houses built partly underground that were made of driftwood, sod, stone, and whalebone depending on what was available. In summer, or when there was too little snow or ice to build a snow house, Inuit lived in tents made of animal skins. The tents were weighted down around the edges by rocks. The Inuit depended on hunting and fishing, hunger and even starvation were common when fish and game were not plentiful. Meat and fish caught in summer were stored in shallow pits that were dug down to permafrost and covered with piles of stones to keep out hungry animals. Because there was little wood in the Arctic to make fires meat and fish were often eaten raw. The skins of seal or caribou was used for everything from the construction of boats (umiaks and kayaks) to shoes (mukluks or kamiks), trousers and parkas. Different skins were used for different seasonal clothing based on insulating and water resistant characteristics needed. An individuals story might have been recorded on the decorations of a parka, and carving —an ancient art that is still practiced today also served to record and share stories. Inuit carved tools, weapons, and objects of art. Bone, ivory, wood, and soapstone (a soft stone) were used to make small figures of people and animals. Tools were carefully carved to fit the hand of the user. In western areas of the Arctic, masks were carved of wood, painted, and decorated with feathers and animal skins. Inuit had a close spiritual relationship with the natural world around them which was passed down though oral tradition. There were no gods, but the cosmos were filled with souls of humans, animals, spirits, and inanimate objects. Inuit also believed in other worlds beneath the sea, inside the Earth, and in the sky. Angakoks, or shamans, were thought to be able to travel in trances and dreams to these other worlds and communicate with souls. Stories told of shamans visiting these worlds, transforming into animals, and visiting Sedna—the half woman half fish goddess of all sea creatures. In each new hunting season, pieces of liver of the first-killed sea mammal were returned to the water to please Sedna to give up her sea creatures to the hunters so that the people would have food. Arctic Cultures The Inuit live in the unique and extreme environment known as the Arctic, spanning from the Alaska boarder to the eastern Atlantic shores within Canada. It is a vast territory, spreading more than 6,000 kilometres through six time zones. Temperatures in the Arctic vary across the enormous expanse of land. Daily temperatures in the coldest months range from minus 30-40 degrees Celsius in the central and eastern ranges of the arctic to a high of minus 10-20 in the western parts of the Arctic. Average temperatures in the warmest months range from 2-15 degrees throughout the region. Despite some warming in the summer, arctic ground remains frozen throughout the year because of long, intensely cold winters. Annual rates of snowfall are relatively light considering the regions northern location resembling desert areas in terms of moisture received. Ice can cover much of the ocean areas and lakes throughout much of the year. Arctic vegetation is composed of small plants, which all grow relatively close to the ground forming, what is known as tundra. Living in the arctic environment has led to the Inuit possessing a number of physiological and biochemical adaptations. Their bodies have adapted to extreme cold by mechanisms that protect against heat loss and by the ability to digest high amounts of animal protein and fat in their diet which helps to preserve body heat. Inuit metabolism produces a greater amount of body heat than most people by a measure known as “basal metabolic rate” which indicates that the Inuit have a 33% higher rate than the rest of the population. These and other adaptations have enabled the Inuit to survive and live in the forbidding environment of the arctic. Subarctic Cultures The Subarctic culture area was a cold, wet region of forests, mountain ranges, and tundra. It extended from what is now known as Newfoundland and Labrador in the east to the Yukon Territory in the west. It was a harsh climate for human survival in which temperatures could dip to –40°C in winter; while, in summer, temperatures could rise to 30°C. There were immense numbers of rivers, lakes, swamps, and muskeg (waterlogged land), making travel possible only by canoe in summer and toboggan and snowshoes in winter. First Nations in the subarctic culture area included the Nehiyaw (Cree), Beothuk, Innu (Montagnais-Naskapi), and Thcho (Dogrib) among others. All First Nations of the Subarctic can be divided into two major language families. The first—the Athapascan speakers—lived in the western regions of the Subarctic. The second—the Algonquian speakers—lived in the eastern regions of the Subarctic. Subarctic peoples ate a protein-based diet of game (caribou, moose, hare) and fish (salmon, pike, whitefish, trout) that were hunted and trapped with bows, arrows, and snares, or caught with nets, spears, hooks and lines. If food was scarce, one nation might grant hunting rights to another to share the resources of a particular area. When food was plentiful in summer, two or more nations might live together. Wild plants were gathered, but there was no farming in the extreme climatic conditions of these regions. First Nations of the Subarctic lived in small groups of 25-30 people who frequently traveled to different locations—often long distances— depending on the availability of game and other resources. There were no formal chiefs in subarctic nations, though individuals would take on leadership roles. Adult men and women contributed to decision-making within a group. Families or individuals who did not agree with group decisions were free to leave or find a new group to live with. Northwest Coast Cultures The Northwest Coast was a coastal area stretching from today’s Vancouver Island in the south up past the Queen Charlotte Islands in the north. The climate here was more hospitable than other culture areas. Temperatures rarely fell below freezing in winter and were moderate in summer. Some of the First Nations of the Northwest Coast included the Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, Kwakwaka’wakw (Kwakiutl), Nuu-chah-nulth (Nootka), and Coast Salish. The languages of the Tlingit and Haida peoples were unique among the Northwest Coast First Nations, as they had no relationship to other First Nations languages. The languages of other nations in this region are related to the Penutian, Wakashan, or Salishan language families. First Nations of the Northwest Coast inhabited an area with abundant resources that were drawn from land and water. Salmon-spawning streams brought several species of salmon to this area, providing great quantities of salmon to eat each year. Fish and shellfish were also harvested from the Pacific Ocean: candlefish, herring, halibut, among others; sea lions and whales; mussels, clams, and oysters. Roots and berries were also gathered. Animals, too, such as caribou, moose, and mountain sheep were hunted for food. Tools, clothes, and shelters were made from animal bone and skin. The population of Northwest Coast villages were about 100 or more. One feature common to all nations in this region was that each village had a hierarchical system of ranking its people. The social status of each person in the village was ranked according to how closely related they were to the headperson or chief. War captives and people in debt were not included in this ranking system, as they were thought of as outcasts. Potlatch ceremonies helped to establish or maintain the social status of a family by demonstrating the host’s generosity. A potlatch could mark family events, such as births and marriages, or help to build political alliances among different First Nations. Different First Nations held potlatch ceremonies for different reasons and in different ways, but many traditions were common in all communities. A chief would invite guests to the ceremony to share gifts and food, along with singing, dancing, and speeches. Stories were retold to preserve the oral histories and knowledge of the people. An individual or group’s wealth was assessed based on valuable possessions such as cedar-bark blankets, dentalium shells, dried fish and fish oil, dugout canoes, and coppers. Coppers were pieces of copper that were hammered into a shield, often decorated with designs or crests. Coppers increased in value when they were traded between families at potlatch ceremonies. Plateau Cultures A plateau is generally a flat area that sits high above sea level. The Plateau culture area was located between the British Columbia coast range and Rocky Mountains. The climate brought hot, dry summers and cold winters to the First Nations who inhabited this region, some of whom were the Secwepemc (Shuswap), Wet’suwet’en (Carrier), Sylix (Okanagan), and Ktunaxa (Kutenai). The nations of this region spoke languages that were part of the Athapaskan, Salishan, or Kutenai language families. Spring, summer, and fall were times when Plateau First Nations traveled to hunt, fish, and gather plants. Their primary means of transportation in warmer weather was the dugout canoe; in winter, they used snowshoes. However, in winter, Plateau peoples settled into more permanent winter villages. Pit houses—underground lodgings—were their winter homes. Plateau peoples subsisted on caribou, deer, sheep, coyotes, hares, and on the Pacific salmon that arrived in each year’s annual salmon run. Because their food supply was seasonal, women spent much time smoking and drying food for use in winter and for times when it was not possible to hunt or fish. Women also took on the tasks of food preparation among other domestic duties, as well as gathering and harvesting plants. Men hunted, fished, and made tools from stone, wood, and bone. People within a village shared food among all villagers. This spirit of sharing resources extended throughout the region. The peoples of the Plateau considered the land and its resources communal, to be shared among all peoples. This sense of community was also reflected in their styles of governance. Decision-making would be shared among many chiefs, each of whom was responsible for one important aspect of village life, for example, fishing. In some Plateau areas, advice was sought from a council of elders— older people drawn from the community. Plains Cultures Plains First Nations—Siksika (Blackfoot), Nakota (Assiniboine), Plains Cree, among many others—inhabited areas with flat land and rolling hills. This region covered territory east of the Rocky Mountains into what is today known as southern Manitoba. The climate brought hot, dry summers and very cold winters. The water supply was limited and came only from rivers that moved east through this region. Trees were found only in river valleys. Millions of bison—buffalo—migrated through the Plains each season and fed upon the grasslands of these areas. Though Plains peoples relied upon other resources for their survival, bison was an enormous natural resource around which Plains First Nations’ cultures developed. When hunting bison, men would use animal skins as a disguise to get up close to an animal to kill it with bows and arrows. Another method of hunting would involve guiding a herd of bison over the edge of a cliff. Women cooked some of the bison meat for immediate consumption; the remaining meat was dried for the winter, or mixed with berries and fat to make pemmican. Other parts of bison were used to make tools and clothes. Bison dung was used for fuel, as there were no trees on the plain to use as firewood. Small, independent groups of Plains peoples were advised, not ruled, by chiefs. A chief’s decision required the approval of the council of elders. These groups followed and hunted the bison herds, which was a nomadic way of life. Plains peoples transported their belongings with the help of dogs who pulled a travois—two long poles with a framework to hold the goods. The travois frame had another purpose: The frame was covered by bison skins to make a conical-shaped dwelling called a tipi. Through winter months, Plains peoples settled in camps. Only in midsummer when bison formed in larger herds did many groups come together for ceremonies and celebration. The languages spoken by Plains First Nations belonged to three language families—Algonquian, Siouan, or Athapaskan. Although languages within each language family had the same origins, many of the languages were very different. This could make communication among different nations difficult, leading to the development of hand gestures or sign language. Eastern Woodlands Cultures As its name suggests, the Eastern Woodlands were filled with vast forests—deciduous in some regions and mixed coniferous-deciduous in others. This culture area covered territory from what are today known as Ontario’s Great Lakes, through southern Québec, and into the Maritime Provinces. Nations who lived in these regions included the Tionontati (Petun), Ouendat (Huron), Saulteaux (Ojibwa), Algonquin, Mi’kmaw (Micmac), and many others. The many First Nations of these regions fell into one of two language families: Iroquoian and Algonquian. Hunting, fishing, and farming were the means of survival for Eastern Woodlands nations. First Nations who lived in warmer southern regions relied heavily on growing beans, corn, and squash for food, as well as white-tail deer for animal protein. Nations further north where it was colder relied on caribou and moose. Inland waters provided fish to some nations, while nations who lived near ocean coasts would hunt for seals. Bows, arrows, traps, and snares were used to hunt animals; nets, hooks, and weirs to catch fish. When available, nuts, berries, tubers, and wild rice were gathered. Nations that relied heavily on farming were able to store crops. This enabled these nations to establish more permanent villages. The populations of these villages might vary between a few families to more than two thousand people. Many related families would all reside in a single longhouse, based on a matrilineal arrangement. A man, upon marrying, would move into his wife’s family’s longhouse. Inheritance would follow the female line. For other nations, hunting was the most important means of survival, which led to the use of less permanent dwellings than those used by agriculturalists. These less-permanent dwellings—tepees and wigwams—were smaller than longhouses. Village populations among these nations would vary with the seasons. Most Eastern Woodland peoples had a village chief. Some peoples may have had both civil chiefs—those who dealt with day-to-day village concerns—and war chiefs. Nations in this culture area also developed a larger democratic governing body called the Six Nations Confederacy, or Haudenosaunee. The Confederacy, formed between 1400 and 1600, was at first a political alliance of five First Nations: Kanien’kehá:ka (Mohawk), Oneniot’á:ka (Oneida), Ononta’kehá:ka (Onondaga), Kaion’kehá:ka (Cayuga), Shotinontowane’á:ka (Seneca). Later, they were joined by a sixth nation: the Tehatiskaró:ros (Tuscarora). All chiefs within the Confederacy were equal in rank and authority. This democratic form of government represented the peoples of each nation and included equal participation of women and men. The government process was passed down orally through the generations. The unwritten constitution of the Confederacy is called the Kaianeraserakowa (the Great Law of Peace). (write approx. 400 words) Throughout this unit, we have reviewed different understandings of the origin of the world and humanity, different adaptations to different ecosystems, and differences in the cultures of Indigenous peoples.  For this reflection point, please discuss the importance and implications of Indigenous understandings of origins, culture, and the environment in relation to Western-oriented understanding to these same topics.  Can these different systems work together, or do you consider them to be too different?
Ans the following question in-brief essay form (20 lines each) : 1. Describe the importance of the Royal Proclamation of 1763. 2. What role does terminology play in terms of understanding Indigenous P
Unit 3: Perspectives on First Contact NATV 1220 Indigenous Peoples in Canada: Part 1 The First Explorers Soon after Christopher Columbus landed in the “New World” in 1492, other European nations began sending expeditions to explore the lands across the sea. In the beginning they were looking for a route to the silk and spices of Asia. Soon they realized these new lands held their own riches. European monarchs and aristocracy believed in the concept of imperialism. They thought they had the right to dominate, claim, and colonize any lands they found. They hoped for riches like the gold and silver Spain laid claim to in South America. However, even monopolizing trade with any distant land had the potential to increase their wealth, power, and prestige. Leif Ericson About the year 1000 the Viking Leif Ericson sailed from Greenland (the island discovered by his father Erik the Red) and explored the east coast of what is now Canada naming the area of Newfoundland and Labrador ‘Markland’. Archaeologists excavating at L’Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland found the remains of buildings and Norse artifacts proving there was a settlement, though no one knows who or for how long. Another 500 years passed before there were any permanent European settlements on the continent. John Cabot An Italian Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot) wanted to look for a route to Asia, north of the route taken by Columbus. He won the backing of English merchants and King Henry VII. In May of 1497, Cabot left Bristol England with a crew of 18 including his three sons. On June 24, they reached land and claimed it for England. It was probably Newfoundland or Cape Breton in what is now Canada. This is the first known landing of Europeans in North America since the Viking Lief Erikson 500 years earlier. After exploring the coast for about a month, Cabot returned to England to much acclaim. He reported that they had reached Asia. He and his men also reported an abundance of fish in the waters of the new land. The king was impressed enough to fund a second trip the next year with five ships and 300 men, but Cabot never returned. It is not known what happened to Cabot or the ships. Cabot’s first voyage became the basis of the English claim to North America and the reports of fish triggered the annual spring voyage across the ocean of European fishing ships and whalers. Others followed such as Portuguese explorer Gaspar Cortes-Real who claimed Newfoundland and Labrador for Portugal in 1500. João Alvares Fagundus, who was also Portuguese, explored the same coast in 1521. Italian Giovanni du Verrazanno claimed land further south for France in 1524 and called it Arcadia. These explorers were all looking for a route to Asia. Most expeditions were funded in part by merchants looking for trade opportunities. Jacques Cartier Like many explorers who sailed to America, the French explorer Jacques Cartier hoped to find a route through the continent to Asia. He did not find a route, but during the three expeditions he led, Cartier was the first recorded European to explore the St. Lawrence River. He was also one of the first Europeans to attempt a settlement in what is now Canada. Cartier’s First Voyage – 1534 In 1534, King Francis I of France sent Cartier to search for a northwest passage. Cartier sailed into what became known as the Gulf of St. Lawrence through the Strait of Belle Isle. He and his men explored the coasts of what are now Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, and New Brunswick naming points as they travelled. In Chaleur Bay, they were approached by Mi’kmaq who indicated that they wanted to trade their furs. It is likely that they were accustomed to trading with the crew of European fishing ships. Outnumbered by the Mi’kmaq, Cartier was at first reluctant to deal with them and fired cannon shots over their heads. However the next day, he and his men went ashore to trade knives and tools for their furs. While on what became known as the Gaspé Peninsula, Cartier had a friendly encounter with a fishing party of Haudenosaunee (Iroquois). They were from the village of Stadacona located near the present day city of Quebec. Before leaving to return to France, Cartier erected a cross and claimed the land for King Francis I. This did not sit well with the Stadacona. Chief Donnacona and his sons paddled a canoe out to Cartier’s ship to let them know that he did not approve. Cartier indicated through sign language that the cross was a marker to help him find his way back to that location. Possibly this satisfied the Donnacona, because Cartier took the chief’s two sons Domagaya and Taignoagny with him to France. Cartier’s Second Voyage – 1535 Cartier did return in 1535 with Domagaya and Taignoagny to navigate the ship up a great river to “kanata” their word for village. Cartier and his crew were likely the first Europeans to sail up what he called the rivière de Canada (St. Lawrence). Donnacona was happy to have his sons back and welcomed them with a feast. However, he discouraged any exploration further up the river that Cartier and King Francis hoped would lead to the Pacific or gold. Regardless, Cartier carried on up the river as far as the Haudenosaunee village of Hochelaga where they were welcomed, but communication was difficult. Cartier got the impression that gold, silver, and copper could be found by following another river leading north from the St. Lawrence. Since the St. Lawrence was blocked by rapids, Cartier climbed a steep hill to have a look at the other river. He named the hill Mont Réal (Mount Royal) and today the city of Montreal stands on this site. Cartier returned to Stadacona in October, where his men were building a small fort. It was a cold winter and with no fresh fruits or vegetables, most of the men got sick from scurvy. Though relations with the Stadacona were strained, Cartier finally learned from them how to brew a tea from white cedar as a cure, but it was too late for the 25 men who died. When Cartier returned to France the next spring, he had to leave one ship behind, however he took 10 of the Stadacona with him, including Donnacona. All but one of the 10 Haudenosaunee died in England before his next voyage. Cartier’s Last Voyage – 1541 Cartier had failed to find a north-west passage to Asia, but the Haudenosaunee reports of gold and silver caught the king’s attention. To ensure France’s claim to the land and any possible riches, Cartier was sent back in 1541 to establish a settlement on the river. An expedition of 10 ships was planned to be led by Jean-François de la Rocque de Roberval, with Cartier as navigator. Roberval’s ship was not ready, but Cartier set sail on schedule. The Stadacona did not welcome the French this time, so Cartier built a fort downriver at a place he named Charlesbourg-Royal. Once again the winter was cold and there was hostility with the Stadacona who no longer trusted the French. At least 35 of the men died or were killed. Despite orders to establish a settlement, Cartier and the surviving men returned to France in the spring with what they thought were gold and diamonds. The “gold” and “diamonds” proved to be worthless iron pyrite and quartz. Cartier never returned to North America, but his exploration helped to establish European knowledge of the geography of the land and he gave many place names to European mapmakers including the name Canada. Samuel de Champlain Samuel de Champlain was a French explorer, colonist, and mapmaker. His sketches and books provide a vivid picture of his travels in the land that became Canada and the lives of the First Nations. Often called the “Father of New France”, Champlain founded the city of Quebec in 1608. He was largely responsible for its success as a colony and France’s claim in North America. Port Royal Champlain first visited Canada in 1603 as a passenger on a trading ship that stopped in Tadoussac and then went on to the site of the present day city of Montreal. The following year he accompanied Pierre Du Gua de Monts and about 80 settlers to Acadia to establish a colony. De Monts had been granted a trade monopoly in New France. They explored what became known as the Bay of Fundy for a temporary site and chose the island of St. Croix. It was a disastrous winter. Many of the settlers died from scurvy and they burned all the trees on the island for heat. In the spring, the settlement moved across the bay to a place they named Port Royal (Annapolis Royal). More settlers came from France in 1605 and the Port Royal colony survived. They grew some food, but relied on the ships that came each spring for supplies. Champlain spent much of his time in Acadia exploring and mapping the Atlantic coast from Port Royal to Cape Cod. In an attempt to bolster spirits during the winter of 1606, he began a club named the Order of Good Cheer. The men were encouraged to outdo each other in planning elaborate meals and festivities. However, when de Monts’ trade monopoly was cancelled in 1607, most of the settlers returned to France. Quebec In 1608, de Monts sent Champlain to establish a fur trading post and colony inland on the St. Lawrence River. Champlain chose the site of the abandoned Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) village of Stadacona which provided access to the interior via the river and a good vantage point for controlling trade. No one knows what happened to the Haudenosaunee. Possibly warfare or European diseases brought by Cartier wiped out the villages north of the river. Champlain called this settlement Quebec from the Algonkian word “kebec” meaning where the river narrows. The workmen Champlain had brought with him, spent the summer building the “Habitation of Quebec”. Champlain spent the rest of his life trying to get financial support for the future capital of New France and this first permanent French settlement in New France. Champlain quickly developed trade relationships with the Innu (Montagnais) who had been travelling to Tadoussac to trade with the French. To build and maintain these trading relationships over the years, he joined the Innu and their First Nations allies in raids on their enemies the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois). For many years, there had been ongoing warfare between two alliances of First Nations; the League of Five Nations Haudenosaunee Confederacy with their allies living south of the St. Lawrence and the Ouendat (Huron) Confederacy with their allies including the Innu and the Kichesiprini (Algonquin) living north of the St. Lawrence. In 1609, Champlain accompanied a war party of Innu, Kichesiprini, and Ouendat up what is now the Richelieu River to a lake that was named Lake Champlain. There Champlain helped his allies defeat the Iroquois who had never before seen European guns. This success cemented the French alliances. However, it made enemies of the Haudenosaunee who soon developed alliances and trading relationships with the Dutch who settled on the Hudson and ultimately the British in New England. Champlain spent the winter of 1609–1610 in France working with de Monts to secure financial support for Quebec from French merchants. On his return he joined another war party against the Haudenosaunee who were once again defeated on the Richelieu River. Also that year, he sent Étienne Brûlée to live with the Ouendat to learn their language and customs. This strategy was designed to build bonds between the Ouendat and the French and other young men followed. Champlain’s personal relationship with the Ouendat grew stronger over the next few years as he travelled with them exploring most of the Great Lakes area and raiding the Haudenosaunee. Henri de Bourbon, Prince de Condé assumed responsibility for New France in 1612. He confirmed Champlain as his lieutenant in New France which increased Champlain’s powers to those of a governor. Though he was not given the title of governor, Champlain was no longer just the agent of a fur trading company. The king reminded him of the importance of the search for valuable minerals and a route through the continent. In 1613, Champlain travelled north up the river Cartier had seen from Mont Réal, which became known as the Ottawa River. His mission was to try to convince the Kichesiprini to come to the rapids to trade with the French. On this trip, he lost his astrolabe while portaging. It was discovered in 1867 and is in the Canadian Museum of Civilization. Also in 1613, Champlain’s book Voyages and detailed map of New France were published. Two years later, Champlain accompanied a party of Ouendat up the Ottawa River to Lake Nipissing, and their territory on what became known as Lake Huron. He had travelled the route that was to become the main highway of the fur trade as the population of fur bearing animals declined in the St. Lawrence region from too much trapping. While visiting with the Ouendat, he joined a war party in an attack on the Oneida and Onondaga of the Haudenosaunee League in their lands at the eastern end of Lake Ontario. They travelled down what are now Lake Simcoe and the Trent River. An attack on a fortified Haudenosaunee village was futile. Champlain was wounded in the leg and spent the winter with the Ouendat while he healed. During this time he learned much from them about their culture and the geography of the land. Champlain’s exploring days were over, but he had acquired a working knowledge of the main First Nations’ trade routes from Acadia to the Great Lakes. He devoted himself to developing the colony and his efforts included bringing four Recollet priests to try to convert the First Nations peoples to Christianity. In 1618, he submitted a plan to King Louis XIII for developing farming, mining, and forestry and requested families, soldiers, and priests be sent from France. Champlain believed that it was essential to develop colonies to protect French interests from the Dutch and English. His constant efforts to get support for the struggling colony were rewarded in 1627. Cardinal Richelieu organized the Company of 100 Associates to promote colonization as well as the fur trade. However, in 1628, Quebec was threatened by David Kirke, an English privateer who intercepted ships with settlers and supplies sent to Quebec by the company. The following year Champlain was forced to surrender his starved-out post to the English privateers. However, thanks in part to Champlain’s efforts, Quebec was restored to France by the Treaty of St.-Germain-en-Laye in 1632. Champlain devoted his few remaining years to rebuilding Quebec, which had fallen into ruins under the English fur traders. When Champlain died in Quebec in 1635, only 150 settlers lived there. Champlain’s fur-trade network, however, had laid solid foundations for the French empire in North America.
Ans the following question in-brief essay form (20 lines each) : 1. Describe the importance of the Royal Proclamation of 1763. 2. What role does terminology play in terms of understanding Indigenous P
Outcomes of Conflicts The Iroquois War The Iroquois War was difficult for both sides and hard to stop because of the belief that warriors could not enter the afterlife until their death had been avenged. A key point raised in the chapter relates to the fighting techniques of the Mohawk, who used what have been termed guerrilla tactics. It was a strategy based on speed and surprise. The strategy was successful against the field warfare strategy of the French and English in which columns of men lined up and fought. The 1690s saw New France in state of siege as the Iroquois put continued pressure on the colony. After nearly a century of war in the region, the Iroquois replaced the Huron as the regional power and emerged with an expanded territory. But the result of the Iroquois’s actions had even deeper ramifications; although they had expanded their territory, the Iroquois suffered from severe population losses. By being a formidable enemy, they had unwittingly helped to unite the colonists of New France, facilitating the establishment of the English on Hudson Bay and forcing the French to expand west. The Fox War The Fox War resulted in more French success than they had experienced against the Iroquois. This was a result of two factors: the French adapted to forest-fighting techniques, and the nations of the pays d’en haut were not as stable in their alliances as the Iroquois. The Mi’kmaq War The Mi’kmaq War had several distinguishing characteristics. First, much of the war was fought at sea. Second, it is one of only a few examples of an indigenous group fighting on their own land for their own lands. As pointed out in the Dickason textbook, this war came to resemble the frontier wars in the United States. With the threat of another war looming in 1755, the British deported the Acadians from Nova Scotia. The final struggle between the two countries took place during the Seven Years’ War from 1756 to 1763. In 1758 several French forts fell to the British. In 1759 the British led by General James Wolfe attacked the town of Quebec, the main French stronghold. In September the British won the battle on the Plains of Abraham and took Quebec; the next year the remaining French forces surrendered at Montreal. In 1763, New France was handed over to the British according to the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Effects of Fur Trade Christianization At the same time that the fur trade was getting underway, Christian missionaries were also seeking good relations with Indigenous peoples. The missionaries’ goal was not commercial; instead, they wished to convert Indigenous peoples to Christianity. Early on, the fur trade aided missionaries in developing the good relations needed to teach Indigenous peoples about Christian beliefs. This was because the Ouendat (Huron) accepted Jesuit priests into their communities. This helped to ease trade relations with Europeans. European traders were less likely to mistreat Ouendat fur traders at market if they were accompanied by a Jesuit priest. These early relationships between missionaries and Aboriginal peoples opened the door to their Christianization. Over time, great numbers of Indigenous peoples converted to Christianity and its belief system, in place of the traditional beliefs their peoples had developed and held for thousands of years. Intermarriage The cooperative nature of the fur trade took European traders deep into the communities of Indigenous peoples. One result of this was the marriage of European men and Indigenous women. When a European man wanted to court and marry an Indigenous woman, he had to follow the customs of her people’s culture. These marriages, in time, led to the development of a new nation—the Métis. However, it would not be until 1982 that the Métis would be formally recognized by the government of Canada as an Indigenous people. Armed Conflict The fur trade caused conflict among some First Nations to protect their own trade interests. For example, the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois Confederacy) attacked and nearly wiped out the Ouendat (Huron) in the 1640s. The surviving Ouendat people dispersed into other regions and took refuge with other First Nations. Later, some First Nations fought in European conflicts. European powers vied for control of the lands that would become Canada. French and English sought Aboriginal allies, because they were regarded as strong and capable warriors. Not all First Nations were drawn into these conflicts. Those who chose to fight with a European nation did so to protect their lands. First Nations tended to side with the European power that would sustain the fur trade, but not settle land for agriculture. European agricultural settlements encroached on traditional Indigenous lands. Over Trapping Another effect of the fur trade industry was the over trapping of animals—some near to extinction. For centuries, Indigenous peoples had trapped and hunted animals sustainably. But the fur trade became such an important part of the Indigenous and European economies that the animals were over trapped in a non-sustainable way. When the animal populations fell in a particular region, there were too few animals to sustain trade, let alone the basic food needs of Indigenous peoples. This often led to Indigenous peoples becoming dependent on Europeans to help them with basic survival. For the Métis and plains First Nations, over trapping was not so much a problem as over hunting of buffalo. There was a huge European industrial demand for buffalo hides in the 19th century. Métis and Plains First Nations hunted buffalo to serve this market. Buffalo were also hunted for sport and food in the United States. The herds of migrating buffalo north and south of the border were nearly wiped out. This forced the Métis and plains First Nations to abandon their traditional ways of life and find new means of survival. Disease One of the most devastating effects of contact and the development of the fur trade between Indigenous peoples and Europeans was epidemic infectious disease. Europeans carried with them diseases to which Indigenous peoples had little or no natural immunity. These diseases were transmitted to Aboriginal populations through fur trading posts. Smallpox, influenza, measles, and other diseases sickened and killed tens of thousands of Indigenous peoples. For example, between one-third and one-half of all Ouendat (Huron) people died of disease in the 1600s. Other examples include epidemics throughout the 1700s in the western interior, in which half of the Dene Suliné (Chipewyan) First Nation was killed and the entire Michele First Nation was wiped out. Epidemics occurred farther west towards the Pacific coast through the 1800s. The Inuit were also not immune, with disease being a suspected contributor to the disappearance of the Mackenzie Inuit as well. Expansion of European Society By the 18th century, the fur trade was extended into the prairies. Eventually the North West Company (NWC) established a fur trade post at Fort Gibraltar at the forks of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers in what is now Winnipeg. The French voyageurs of the North West Company, who manned the big canoes, began to marry Indigenous women and live year round in the area. The children of these marriages (who would later be referred to as either Bois Brules or Métis) learned from their Indigenous families to hunt the buffalo and how to prepare pemmican, the staple food of the fur trade. Their European fathers taught them the European farming style, and how to build and use the big ox-driven carts they utilized to carry large loads of pemmican from the hunt to their homes. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, there were several thousand Métis, most of them around present-day southern Manitoba. Eventually, these Métis people would develop a sense of nationhood based on their distinct culture and their economic independence based on their primary occupation – the pemmican trade. The North West Company eventually became a major force in the fur trade between the 1780s to 1821. Managed primarily by Highland Scots who migrated to Montréal after 1760, or came as Loyalists escaping the American Revolution, it also drew heavily on Canadian labour and experience. The name first described Montréal traders who in 1776 pooled resources to reduce competition among themselves and to resist inland advances of the Hudson’s Bay Company. The NWC and the Hudson’s Bay Company became bitter rivals and a number of confrontations ensued. For instance, During 1803 to 1806, the Nor’Westers maintained a base in HBC territory on James Bay, and although this enterprise proved unprofitable, rivalry intensified elsewhere. Costly clashes at the Red River Colony, Fort William and at the Grand Rapids of the Saskatchewan River. This rivalry impaired the abilities and profit of both companies that by 1820, strong forces were building towards a resolution of the conflict. In 1821, both companies merged into one entity – called the Hudson’s Bay Company. The HBC after 1821, as a monopoly, enjoyed a great profits throughout what is now Canada. By 1870 the HBC’s vast territory in the West was transferred to Canada, and what had been a trickle of settlers coming from Ontario became a flood. As settlement spread north and west, the HBC and rival free traders intensified the northward push of the trade, and eventually established enduring trading contacts with the Inuit. Fur trade and the Inuit The fur trade lasted much longer for Inuit in the Canadian Arctic than it had in any other region of Canada. For Inuit, the trade continued well into the 20th century. The fur trade affected Inuit culture. It brought them European tools with which they conducted their hunts—guns and motorboats, for example. Inuit also adopted many other European goods into their way of life such as store-bought clothing and food. In addition, Christian missionaries had followed close behind the European traders, converting almost all Inuit to Christianity by 1940. Despite the changes that came with the fur trade and European contact, the traditional Inuit way of life—semi-nomadic living in hunting and trapping camps—remained intact. This way of life continued for a long time after contact because the Canadian government had had little interest in developing the far north for economic or military purposes. Once the government changed its policy on those fronts, it set up centralized living areas scattered throughout the Arctic. The government encouraged Inuit to live in those centres. As a result, the Inuit semi-nomadic way of life was virtually gone by the 1960s and 70s.
Ans the following question in-brief essay form (20 lines each) : 1. Describe the importance of the Royal Proclamation of 1763. 2. What role does terminology play in terms of understanding Indigenous P
Battles for Control The expansion of New France brought further conflict. The Haudenosaunee again unleashed their anger on the French settlers and in 1689 destroyed the village of Lachine, near Montreal. The Haudenosaunee also made an alliance with the British, who had taken New York and the Hudson Valley from the Dutch. Across North America, British and French interests were locked in a grim rivalry for the future of the continent. In 1668, French fur traders Médard Chouart des Groseilliers and Pierre-Esprit Radisson had led the British to the interior fur trade using the sea route to Hudson Bay, which Henry Hudson had sailed almost 60 years earlier. By 1670 the British Hudson’s Bay Company was established, and French fur traders began to feel the competition from this rival in the north. English and French fishermen clashed in the Newfoundland and Acadian fishing grounds which the British claimed. To the south, British colonists were trading in the vast territories west of the Appalachian Mountains, which the French considered their territory. Between 1689 and 1697, the rivalry between the British and French broke into open warfare both in Europe where it was called the War of the Grand Alliance and in North America where it was called King William’s War. In North America the French and their First Nations allies and the British and their allies the Haudenosaunee made raids into each other’s territory. The war extended from where these battles took place in the lands between New France and the British colonies of New England and New York right up to Hudson Bay, where the French and English fur traders fought for control. In 1701 the War of the Spanish Succession erupted in Europe. Called Queen Anne’s War in the colonies, it dragged on for a dozen years until France reached a compromise with Great Britain in 1713 and Austria in 1714. The French were allowed to place Philip d’Anjou, the grandson of King Louis XIV, on the Spanish throne in exchange for colonial territory. France gave up to Great Britain Acadia which was renamed Nova Scotia, or “New Scotland”, most of Newfoundland, and the Hudson Bay territory. The 1713 Treaty of Utrecht did not consider the land rights of the First Nations. The next 30 years were relatively peaceful until North America was dragged into the War of the Austrian Succession in 1744. This war was called King George’s War in North America. When it ended in 1748, Îsle Royale (Cape Breton) which had been captured by the British was returned to the French. In spite of all the bloodshed, France and Great Britain still had not settled their rivalry for supremacy in North America. With the threat of another war looming in 1755, the British deported the Acadians from Nova Scotia. The final struggle between the two countries took place during the Seven Years’ War from 1756 to 1763. In 1758 several French forts fell to the British. In 1759 the British led by General James Wolfe attacked the town of Quebec, the main French stronghold. In September the British won the battle on the Plains of Abraham and took Quebec; the next year the remaining French forces surrendered at Montreal. In 1763, New France was handed over to the British according to the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Outcomes of Conflicts The Iroquois War The Iroquois War was difficult for both sides and hard to stop because of the belief that warriors could not enter the afterlife until their death had been avenged. A key point raised in the chapter relates to the fighting techniques of the Mohawk, who used what have been termed guerrilla tactics. It was a strategy based on speed and surprise. The strategy was successful against the field warfare strategy of the French and English in which columns of men lined up and fought. The 1690s saw New France in state of siege as the Iroquois put continued pressure on the colony. After nearly a century of war in the region, the Iroquois replaced the Huron as the regional power and emerged with an expanded territory. But the result of the Iroquois’s actions had even deeper ramifications; although they had expanded their territory, the Iroquois suffered from severe population losses. By being a formidable enemy, they had unwittingly helped to unite the colonists of New France, facilitating the establishment of the English on Hudson Bay and forcing the French to expand west. The Fox War The Fox War resulted in more French success than they had experienced against the Iroquois. This was a result of two factors: the French adapted to forest-fighting techniques, and the nations of the pays d’en haut were not as stable in their alliances as the Iroquois. The Mi’kmaq War The Mi’kmaq War had several distinguishing characteristics. First, much of the war was fought at sea. Second, it is one of only a few examples of an indigenous group fighting on their own land for their own lands. As pointed out in the Dickason textbook, this war came to resemble the frontier wars in the United States. With the threat of another war looming in 1755, the British deported the Acadians from Nova Scotia. The final struggle between the two countries took place during the Seven Years’ War from 1756 to 1763. In 1758 several French forts fell to the British. In 1759 the British led by General James Wolfe attacked the town of Quebec, the main French stronghold. In September the British won the battle on the Plains of Abraham and took Quebec; the next year the remaining French forces surrendered at Montreal. In 1763, New France was handed over to the British according to the terms of the Treaty of Paris.

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