Pick from one up to, but no more than 4. You will get a maximum of 2 points per question. No more than 8 points total. Answer each question fully. Any answer less than 2 pages, 12 point, Times New Roman, 1 inch margins (no half a page of name, class, assignment) will not be graded.
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- The core method of anthropology is ethnography. It requires participant observation, the use of symbols, finding a key informant, thick description, and conversations with natives. Using Spradley Ethnography and Culture, Next door but Invisible, and Growing up Hunting, describe in detail how the method works. Contrast Next Door but Invisible and Growing Up Hunting in terms of the guiding (why) and subsidiary (who, what, and how) questions asked, the techniques used, and the potential results.
- As anthropologists we are trying to get at the cognitive maps of people in different cultures. Using Shakespeare in the Bush, Space Speaks, Wears Jump Suits…, and A Look Behind the Veil describe what is essential in the cognitive maps described in each. Give an example from each article, showing one aspect of how their/our cognition shapes the way we actually behave.
- Corporate culture analysis starts with the idea that businesses are cultural, because like cultures in general they need to solve problems, evolve different cognitive maps, sets of social relationships, etc. Describe, using How and why Corporations are Cultures, some of the cultural characteristics of businesses. Give an example of cultural ideologies. Explain why this method should help you even in dealing with foreign business culture, using Using Skills for Cooperative Advantage in Japan.
- Anthropologists are interested not only in the cognitive map, but the behaviors that derive from it. Using Life Without Chiefs, When Brothers Share a Wife show how the requirements of societies shape the way we practice marriage, and organize our societies to accomplish ends. How does this organization of relationships affect tribal societies? In a pluralistic state like ours, using Gross, Ethnicity and How we got the Color of our Skin, how do we define and rank people according to their differences. Give examples.
- As I said in question 4, behavior is as critical to explain other cultures as the cognitive maps that generate behavior. Survival and providing people in a culture what they need to survive and what the culture tells them in addition they should want (luxuries and other markers of status or group affiliation). Using Subsistence Strategies and the Organization of Social Life describe how the different kinds of production of food required different kinds of organization. What does modern American food getting (i.e. livelihood) create in terms of structure? How do we value the things we produce and use them to establish our social place? Does money change the nature of social relationships in a tribal society (Rambo, From Shells to Money)? How does money affect our relations with one another in structuring American Society?
- One of the deepest sources of our view of the world (cognition) is religion. Using Religion, Meanings, Values, and Social Action define religion. What needs does it fill for individuals? Explain how each religion’s Big Question defines the nature of the divine (God, Allah, gods, spirits), how it defines both our view of the way the world works and our system of values (ethos)? Why are social movements often based on religious ideas and led by religious practitioners? Why does Geertz define it a cultural system of symbols? How do myths and tales make the ideas of religion, especially tribal shamanistic (Sound of Rushing Water) and early state religion (Persephone and Demeter), real? How do rituals make religious ideas real?