As a graduate student in a psychology program at this university, you have the opportunity to create scholarship for potential publication of your studentauthored article in a scholarly journal such as the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin or Personality and Social Psychology Review. It is important to note that in the example journals, all student-authored papers that are accepted for publication in these journals are automatically eligible to receive a student publication award from the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. Take the time to examine some quality sample publications from previous winners, which
As a graduate student in a psychology program at this university, you have the opportunity to create scholarship for potential publication of your studentauthored article in a scholarly journal such as the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin or Per
PSY 560 Final Project: Student -Authored Article Guidelines and Rubric Overview Your Mission As a graduate student i n a psychology program at this u niversity, you have the opportunity to create scholarship for potential publication of your student – authored article in a scholarly journal such as the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin or Personality and Social Psychology Review . It is important to note that in the e xample journals, all student -authored papers that are accepted for publication in these journals are automatically eligible to receive a student publication award from the Society for Personality and Social Psych ology . Take the time to examine some quality sample publications from previous winners , which can be found here: Ma -Kellams, C., Spencer -Rodgers, J., & Peng , K. (2011) . I am against us? Unpacking cultural differences in ingroup favoritism via d ialecticism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 15 –27. Shu, L. L., Gino, F., & Bazerman , M. H. (2011). Dishonest deed, c lear conscience: When cheating leads to moral disengagement and motivated forgetting. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 330 –349. Babbitt , L. G., & Sommers , S. R. (2011) Framing matters : Contextual influences on interracial interaction o utcomes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 1233 –1244. The final project for this course is the creation of a scholarly, student -authored article that is ready for potential submission to a real -world organization or publication that focuses on this subfield of psychology. For purposes of this course, we will focus on the Society for Personality and Social Psyc hology (SPSP), an organization founded in 1974 when the leadership of the American Psychological Association decided to incorporate an independ ent organization to focus on this subfield. Remember, this is an article for potential publication in one of thes e journals. You are NOT required to submit your completed article to the publication as part of this project. However, you are strongly encouraged to continu e to develop your article and conduct further research upon completion of this course as you move f orward in your academic work for possible future submission. In this component, t his assessment will measure student competency with respect to the following course outcomes: Defend a position on the role personality psychology plays in the b roader field of psychology and its relevancy to practical issues Propose appropriate solutions to complex problems that draw upon contemporary principles and current research in personality psychology Analyze foundational theories of personality for their historical context, theorist’s biases, research methods, and relevance to current thinking in the field Evaluate the continued relevancy and accuracy of classic theories of psychology in the context of contemporary research findings Assess personality psychology practices in terms of their appropriateness for diverse populations Prompt Put yourself in the shoes of a theorist and propose a solution to a real -world contemporary problem based on your understand ing of the t heorist and his or her theories. How do you break down this theory to inform your selection of the problem, how does it address not only the problem, but the solution , and how can you defend this solution? Cli ck here to access a list of preapproved theorists and resources. Students wishing to select a theorist other than those listed must receive instructor approval. The American Psychological Associat ion is a good starting point for helping you to identify the problem around which your theory and article focus . Specifically , the following critical elements must be addressed: 1. Using the preapproved theorists and resources, select and analyze a founda tiona l theory of personality for its historical context, theorist’s biases, and research methods. Aspects you will address in this an alysis would include the following : o Analyz e the background of your theory . This means including key biographi cal information related to the theorist (not simply providing biographical elements about the theorist) and the historical context in which the theory was developed. For example, were there important world events tha t may have influenced the theorist? o Anal yze the essential characteristics of the theory . This is a section in which you begin to incorporate relevant research that demonstrates the development of the theory . For example, was the theory a reaction against other forces in psychology o f the time or an extension of the work of an earlier theorist? 2. Evaluate this theory’s continued relevanc e, validity , and corresponding accuracy in the context of the contemporary principles and current research findings in this field. o Evaluate the validi ty and corresponding accuracy of the theory . Validity of a theory relates to such issues as how well the theory explains behavior, how well the theory makes testable predictions, and how well those predictions are sup ported by research. For ex ample, w hat is the research evidence that supports the theory? What is the research evidence that does not support the theory? How does the theory explain personality development? o Evaluate the aspects that are relev ant in the field today and the ones that are not . What is the current thinking in the field using evidence from recent research? Note that “recent” research is defined as within the last five years. 3. After analyzing and evaluating your selected foundation theory and theorist(s), you will use this lens to analyze a complex problem in the field of personality psychology that draws upon this theory and propose an appropriate solution to that complex problem that draws upon contemporary principles and current research finding s in this field. o Discuss how your theory relates to the problem. For exampl e, if you are addressing psycho analytical theory and the current complex problem you are addressing is child abuse and neglect, explain how your theory relates to or explains this problem. o Ensure that the solution you propose is consistent with the theory and contemporary relevance of the problem you have identified. How would your selected theorist approach this problem? For example, if you have s elected one of the exis tential theo rists, how might he or she conceptualize the current problem of PTSD? What specific approach would the theorist take in dealing with this problem? How valid do you find this approach? If there is available research related to the application of this theory to this specific problem, describe that research here. Also, consider describing research that you believe would help inform this issue. 4. In discussing your solution , assess how personality psychological practices differ in terms of their app ropriateness for diverse populations and application practices . o Address the applicability of your selected theory in terms of its appropriateness for diverse populations. Applicability of a theory generally relates to how well the theory can be applied to real -world situations. In other words, h ow well can your selected theory be applied in a variety of cultural situations? o Include examples of how the approach to implementing your solution in practice might differ based on the target population. 5. Includ e a cogent thesis and thesis argument that will clearly defend a position on the role personality psychology plays in the broader field of psychology and its relevancy to practical issues . o Your position will demonstrate that you are familiar with the relevant current research. For example, if you are stating that social learning theory is still relevant to your proposed solution , you are following up that statement with evidence from current research that supports your position and explains why. o You will demonstrate your info rmed opinion and articulate its viability. Your article should address research that exists against your position and your articulation of why or why not that research is viable and how it impacts what you are stating in your o wn article. o You will address what research needs to be done to further support or not support the position you are taking. What sort of research would validate or invalidate your position? For example, when you restate your proposed solution in closing , yo u might say something like, “If we want to fully explore the implications of this learning theory in early childhood development, the type of research we would need to engage in for a more comprehensi ve dialogue would consist of… ” Instructions There are t wo components to this project. The first component is your student -authored article , which will focus on an appropriate solution to the complex problems this theory addresses and draw upon the contemporary research and principles to support that solution. This is due in Module Nine . In the second component , you will present your analysis and proposed solution in a peer -review forum in Module Ten , which entails defending your position with your peers and engaging in a dialogue. This dialogue will not only ad dress the role personality psychology plays in the broader field of psychology and its relevancy to practical issues , but it should also inform your own understanding of various foundational theories of personalities in the field —not just one that you chos e as the focus of your own article. Refer to the separate Peer Review Guidelines and Rubric document for instructions and grading criteria on this second component. Milestones This component of your project is divided into four milestones , which will be s ubmitted at various points throughout the course to scaffold learning and ensure quality final submissions: 1. Milestone One : Topic Selection : Review both components of the final project in Module Two . This document addresses the first component of your fina l project. Post any question s you may have to the Final Project discussion forum. 2. Milestone Two : Abstrac t: Submit an abstract of y our proposed article to a class -wide forum in Module Three . 3. Milestone Three : Abstract Feedback : Provide your peers feedback on the ir abstract s by Module Five . 4. Milestone Four : Draft/Outline : Submit a draft/outline of your article to your instructor in Module Seven . This will be submitted for feedback; you will be awarded full points for the submission or 0 points for no submission . 5. Final Project Component 1: Student -Authored Article Final Draft delivered to your instructor at end of Module Nine and uploaded to the Module Ten discussion in preparation for the peer r eview in Module Ten . 6. Final Project Component 2: Peer Review/Position Defense (through a discussion forum) in Module Ten . Rubric Requirements of Submission Your article should be in one complete file, double -spaced, including references. A tab indent should begin each paragraph. The complete file should not exceed 10,000 w ords in length including the abstract, references , and notes. Your completed article will include a separate title page with word count listed, abstract, body of your article, references, and notes. Your abstract of no more than 150 words should be contain ed on a separate page following the title page and include 4 –5 keywords beneath the abstract. A minimum of 10 scholarly resources consisting of primary or secondary sources to support your interpretation are required to support your article. Why 10 ? This i s not about quantity but rather minimum resources necessary to cover the scope of quality research. Note that TWO of these resources must be based on the approved list of primary sources from the theorists whom you are interpreting for this article. Theori sts and associated p rimary sources not on the list must be approved by the instructor . Instructor Feedback: This activity uses an integrated rubric in Blackboard. Students can view instructor feedback in the Grade Center. For more in formation, review these instructions . Critical Elements Exemplary (100%) Proficient (90%) Needs Improvement (70%) Not Evident (0%) Value Analysis: Bac kground of the Theory Meets “Proficient” and illustrates all connections with concrete and relevant examples Specific aspects of the theorist’s biography, biases, and historical context a re logically connected to the theory Specific aspects of the theorist’s biography, biases, and historical context are not logically connected to the theory Does not describe specific aspects of the theorist’s biography, biases, and historical context relat ed to the theory 10 Analysis: Characteristics and Methods of the Theory Meets “Proficient” and the research methods and essential characteristics of the theory are illustrated with concrete and relevant examples Research methods and essential characteristics of the theory are appropriately analyzed Research methods and essential characteristics of the theory are accurately described but are not analyzed Does not describe research methods and essentia l characteristics of the theory 10 Evaluation : Validity and Accuracy of the Theory Meets “Pr oficient” and the claim is well supported with concrete examples to address its accuracy and validity Compares and contrasts the theory to other theorists and theories to address its accuracy and validity Compares and contrasts the theory to other theorists and theories but does not address its accuracy and validity Does not comp are and contrast the theory to other theorists and theories 10 Evaluation: Contemporary Relevance of the Theory Meets “Proficient” and all of the research is scholarly Makes a claim about the extent to which the theory is relevant today using contemporary research to substantiate Makes a claim about the extent to whi ch the theory is relevant today but does not use contemporary research to substantiate Does not include an appropriate claim about the contemporary relevanc e of theory 10 Proposed Solution to Problem Meets “Proficient” and a ll of the research is scholarly Proposes a solution that is logically consistent with the theory Propose s a solution that is not logic ally consistent with the theory Does not propose a solution 20 Glossary: Term Definition Example Concrete Sufficiently specific to be able to visualize; real or solid; not abs tract Exemplar: Freud was influence by the puritanical and repressive sexual mores of the Victorian era. By some accounts, even the mention of the word “leg” was considered improper in mixed company, because of its perceived immodesty (Source, Date). Rel evant Directly connected to the matter at hand; pertinent to the topic Exemplar: In the early days of psychology, direct consideration of spiritual and religious issues was thought to be relevant and important in scientific inquiry as evidenced by William James’ s seminal work, The Varieties of Religious Experience , which was based on lectures James gave at the University of Edinburgh in 1901 and 1902 (Powers, 2005). However, the rise of behaviorism beginning with the work of John Watson in 1913 sent mainstr eam psychology in the direction of not considering internal processes in understanding human behavior (Powers, 2005). This neglect of spirituality in psychology began to change with the development of hu manistic psychology in the 1950s and 1960s, and more recently the greater emphasis on multicultural issues in psychotherapy and counseling has led to a reconsideration of spirituality and religion (Powers, 2005). Insightful Revealing the inner nature; going beyond the surface or Exemplar: In his moving writing about his concentration camp experiences, Assessment of Personality Psychological Practice Differences Meets “Proficient” and supports all claims with concrete and relevant exam ples Makes appropriate claims about the extent to which theory informs practices as applied to diverse populations Makes claims that are not appropriate to the extent to which theory informs practices as applied to diverse populations Does not identify implications of the th eory to psychological practices 20 Defense of Position on the Ro le of Personality Psychology Meets “Proficient ,” and past and current applications that exist for and against your proposed solution are illustrated with concrete and relevant examples Applications of the theory specific to addressing the prop osed solution are accurately a nalyzed Applications of the theory specific to addressing the proposed solution are described but not accurately analyzed Does not address applications of the theory specific to proposed solution 15 Writing Grammar, mecha nics, citations, and voice are consistently approp riate for the intended audience There are no major errors of grammar, mechanics, citations, and voice Errors in g rammar, mechanics, citations, and voice are prevalent but do not prevent the submission fro m being understood Errors in grammar, mechanics, citations, and voice prevent the submission from being understood 5 Total Comments: 100% generalizations to illumina te nuance or shades of gray; able to see beyond the readily apparent Viktor Frankl (1992) explores the basic human struggle to find meaning in life and the importance of being able t o transcend current experience to find that meaning. According to Frankl, the search for and finding of meaning is the primary motivation of a person’s life. This meaning is derived in an outer – directed fashion toward the world, rather than based within th e individual’s own psyche. Frankl refers to this as “the self -transcendence of human existence” (Frankl, 1992, p. 115). Somewhat in contrast to Maslow, Frankl views self -actualization as a by product of self -transcendence. Self -actualization cannot be consc iously sought but can be only achieved through the forgetting of self and giving self to a cause outside of the self, either to a cause, to service, or to another person in love (Frankl, 1992). Logical Reasonable; philosophically consistent; non -contradic tory Exemplar: There is much discussion about Freud’s focus on sexual and aggressive drives and consequently a tendency to be dismissive of his consideration of drives as being too narrow. However, Freud’s own conceptualization suggested a more complex und erstanding of these drives. The abilities to work and to love were for Freud the desired outcomes of psychoanalysis (Hazan & Shaver, 1990). The mature, adult expression of sexual and aggressive drives is the ability to form loving relationships and to be engaged in productive activity. There are not many therapists who would argue with these as appropriate goals for treatment . Analyze To dissect, deconstruct, or break a complex thing down to its comp onent parts to reveal the inner workings, underlying prem ises, or deeper meaning Exemplar: Kelly structured his personal construct theory into 11 corollaries. He based them on his belief that individuals organize their behaviors through anticipating future events (Weihs, 2011). Like a scientist who works with a theory, hypothesis, experiment ob servation, and resultant theory, Kelly believed individuals work with a construction system, anticipation, experience and behavior, and resultant construction system. Kelly believed that individuals anticipate what to expec t from another individual or environment based on their previous constructions (Weihs, 2011). Describe To state the characteristics of a thing Exemplar: The longitudinal study contains a whole host of conceptual and logistical challenges. This is especia lly the case in studies of continuity of personality characteristics from infancy onward. As just one example of difficulty in longitudinal studies is the concept of continuity itself and how it is measured (Mussen, Conger, & Kagan, 1975). For example, one common meaning of continuity is rank order continuity . In this instance, an individual retains relative rank for an attribute within a particular cohort over a particular period of time. Stability of IQ would be an example of continuity in terms of rank o rder; the trait is stable relative to the reference group. A second type of continuity is ipsative , the child’s tendency to display the same hierarchical organization or behavioral disposition over time. The ranking may change, but the personality characte ristic remains stable. A third type of continuity is psychological epigenesis ; i.e., whether there is a necessary relation between processes at one time and a successive set of processes at a later time in development. For example, is the quality of attach ment in infancy related to later adult dependency? Appropriate Warranted based on given parameters or circumstances; consistent with the given context Scholarly Peer -reviewed, primary research published in journals Anti -exemplar: psychology.about.com Exemplar: a primary source; the original writings of the theorist Assess Measure or evaluate in order to make claims about the amount, extent, incidence, quality, or significance of something Exemplar: Despite the many strengths of Kelly’s personal constr uct theory, there are significant weaknesses , the primary being the lack of explanation for emotions within behavior. Individuals build their levels of bipolar constructs as a result of emotions and childhood experiences (McCloughlin & Matthews, 2009). Kel ly’s theory does not explain how an individual develops his or her level of bipolar separation for each construct and does not account for the role of emotions in developing personal constructs. Identify Name and define Exemplar: The word temperament fir st came into the language during the Middle Ages , and at that time it described biological determinants of behavior. In modern use, temperament has come to be restricted to an individual’s constitutional disposition to activity and emotionality. Temperamen t theorists in the early twentieth century included McDougal, Meumann, and Kollartis (Millon, 1981). McDougal derived eight tempers on combinations of three fundamental dimensions: intensity (strength and urgency), persistency (inward versus outward expres sion), and affectivity (emotional susceptibility). Meumann also developed eight fundamental qualities of feeling. Using the polarities of pleasure -displeasure and active -passive, he devised four classical humors. In a similar way, Kollartis used dimensions of pleasantness versus unpleasantness and excited versus calm to derive his major character types (Millon, 1981). Effective Accomplishes the intended goal(s) Exemplar: The psychologist’s conception of his science involves more than a set of abstract prin ciples, more than an operating manual for the design of research and the construction of theory. Each philosophy of science in psychology is intimately bound up with an image of man, a disciplinary identity, and a system of basic assumptions and values reg arding the aims, problem areas, and investigative methods with which psychology should properly concern itself. Until recently, the scientific orientation in American psychology has been predominantly “demonstrative” rather than “dialectical.” The prevaili ng approach has been tough -minded, extraspective, technically rigorous, and operationalistic. (Taken from the work of Joseph Rychlak, A Philosophy of the Science of Personality Theory , 1968) Engaging Able to hold the attention of the intended audience Exe mplar: In some ways, Adler was ahead of his time in terms of arguing for the equality of men and women. He believed that the relative roles in society of men and women added to the sense of inferiority of each gender. Women are devalued by society and ther efore experience exaggerated inferiority. On the other hand, men are burdened by the high expectat ions placed on them which can not be met. This leads to greater inferiority for men. This problem can be resolved only by women and men being equally valued (A dler, 1980). Accurate Factually true Exemplar: Jean Piaget was one of the first theorists to focus on human development during childhood. Piaget believed development occurred through schemas ( Cowan, Langer, Rich, & Nathanson, 1969 ). Schemas are the menta l and physical actions associated with knowledge development. Piaget taught that schemas include knowledge and the process of obtaining knowledge. He believed children consult previously learned information when faced with a new concept. Children would sub sequently change their schema when additional information about an existing schema was obtained ( Cowen et al., 1969 ). Theorists and Theorist -Authored Sources You are required to use a MINIMUM of two sources authored by your selected theorist. This mean s in addition to the secondary sources you may use in your article you are also reading about the theory as written by the theorist, not what the secondary sources say about this theory. Why is this important? You need to read documentation by your theoris t in order to synthesize the material and inform your own perspective, not simply repeat what others think about the theory. The ability to interpret original theories is also key in developing yourself professionally in this field. A list of example sou rces is provided below for you to facilitate your research in identifying and qualifying appropriate materials that have been directly authored by your theorist . Some of the recommended resources are not linked or available online through the Shapiro Libra ry. However, you may conduct a broader online search to find these materials , access these sources directly from your public library , or acquire them through the Shapiro Library Off -Campus Library Ser vices program. If you elect to choose a different theory or theorist -authored source materials than those listed here , please verify your choices with your instructor in the Final Project discussion forum to ensure you are using quality theorist sources. John Dollard and Neal Miller – Social Learning T heory 1. Dollard, J. , & Miller, N. E. (1950). Personality and psychotherapy: An analysis in terms of learning, thinking, and culture. New York, NY: McGraw -Hill. Erich Fromm – Existential and Humanistic P sychol ogy 1. Resource: Fromm, E. (1944) . Individual and s ocia l origins of neurosis. American Sociological Review , 9(4), 380 –384 . 2. Resource: Fromm, E. (1994). Escape from freedom. New York, NY: Holt Paperbacks. David Buss – Evolutionary P sychology (he is covered in the text, but briefly enough that he could be used) 1. Resource: Buss, D. M. (1989). Sex differences in human mate preferences: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures . Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12 , 1–49. 2. Resource: Buss, D. (1991). Evoluti onary personality psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 42 , 459 –491. Rollo Reece May – Existential Psychology 1. Resource: May, R. (1960). Existential bases of psychotherapy. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 30 , 685 –695. http://dx.doi.org /10.1111/j.1 939 – 0025.1960.tb02086.x 2. Resource: May, R. (1981). Freedom and destiny. New York, NY: Dell Publishing. 3. Resource: May, R. (1994). The Discovery of being : Writings in existential psychology. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. 4. Resource: May, R. (1996). The meaning of anxiety. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. Viktor Frankl – Logotherapy 1. Resource: Frankl, V. E. (1967). Logotherapy and existentialism. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice , 4(3), 138 –142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0087982 2. Resource : Frankl, V. (2006). Man’s search for meaning. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Julian Rotter – Locus of C ontrol 1. Resource: Rot ter, J. (1954). Social learning and clinical psychology . Westport, CT: Johnson Reprint Corporation. 2. Resource: Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied , 80 (1), 1 –28. http://dx.do i.org/ 10.1037/h0092976 3. Resource: Rotter, J. B. (1975). Some problems and misconceptions related to the construct of internal versus external control of reinforcement. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43 (1), 56 –67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076301 4. Resource: Rotter, J. B. (1990). Internal versus external control of reinforcement: A case history of a variable. American Psychologist, 4 5(4), 489 –493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003 -066X.45.4.489 Supporting Resource: Note: This source provides bio graphical information on Rotter and does not count as one of the required two minimum theory sources . Rotter, J. B. (1993). Expectancies. In C. E. Walker (Ed.), The history of clinical psychology in autobiography (Vol. II) (pp. 273 –284). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole . Martin Seligman – Learned Helpless and Positive P sychology 1. Res ource : Seligman, M.E.P. (1995). Learned optimism . New York, NY: Kn opf. 2. Res ource: Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Can happiness be taught? Daedalus, 133 (2), 80 –87 . 3. Res ource: Seligman, M. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (200 0). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55 (1), 5 –14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003 -066X.55.1.5 4. Res ource : Seligman, M. P., Rashid, T., & Parks, A. C. (2006). Positive psychotherapy. American Psychologist , 61 (8), 774 -788. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1037/0003 – 066X.61.8.774 5. Res ource : Peterson, C., Maier, S.F., & Seligman, M.E.P. (1995). Learned helplessness. New York, NY: Oxford. Veronica Benet -Martínez – Cultural I nfluences on Personality and Bicultural I dentity 1. Res ource : Benet -Martinez, V. , & Haritatos, J. (2005). Bicultural identity integration (BII): Components and psychosocial antecedents. Journal of Personality, 73 (4), 1015 –1050. 2. Res ource : Benet -Martin ez, V., Lee, F., & Leu, J. (2006). Biculturalism and cognitive complexity: Expertise in cultural representations. Journal of Cross -Cultural Psychology, 37 (4), 386 -40 7.