BIOPSYCHOLOGY WK 7 It will be a thorough review and discussion of a disorder you chose from the list below when completing your Week 3 Paper Preparation assignment. It is important to note that this i

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BIOPSYCHOLOGY WK 7

It will be a thorough review and discussion of a disorder you chose from the list below when completing your Week 3 Paper Preparation assignment. It is important to note that this is not simply a summary review paper. You will be using the required scholarly literature to support a discussion of specific areas, as outlined below, within the topic that you chose. The paper will consist of a literature review and discussion of the current biological/genetic treatments for your selected topic. The body of the paper will be 6-8 pages in length, not including the title, abstract and reference pages, and the annotated bibliography. At least six scholarly sources should be used. This paper must be written through a biological lens. Meaning a discussion of the genetic/biological origin and treatments are required. Do not include non-biologically-based treatment methods such as counseling, therapy, support groups, etc.The paper’s focus will be a selected disorder from the list below. This topic must be the same as what you chose for your Paper Preparation assignment.Klinefelter’s Syndrome

The Week 7 Course Paper will include the following:

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Title page in APA format (Times New Roman, 12 font only)

The below areas are the required subheadings that must be included within your paper.History: A history (historical perspective) of the topic (one to two pages). The history portion of the paper should be brief and relevant to the purpose of the paper (written in third person, Times New Roman, 12 font only).Epigenetic Causes: A detailed explanation of the epigenetic (genetic and environmental) etiology (cause) of the chosen topic (one to two pages) (Written in third person, Times New Roman, 12 font only).Symptoms and treatments: A detailed discussion of the symptoms and biological/genetic treatments of the chosen topic (two to four pages) (Written in third person, Times New Roman, 12 font only).Evaluation: A critical evaluation and summation of three current (no older than five years) research articles on the chosen topic (one to two pages) (Written in third person, Times New Roman, 12 font only).Synthesis: Brief synthesis and conclusion of the material presented (one page) (Written in third person, Times New Roman, 12 font only).

This is a formal paper (not a list of responses, numbered points, or bullet points) in APA format (6th ed. – Times new Roman 12 font, 6-8 pages in length (not counting the title page, abstract, reference page, and Annotated Bibliography), the use of five or more references is required (other than the textbook and website). It must reflect the use of course content and critical thinking.You must include an APA formatted title page that includes:Student’s nameCourse name and numberTitle of paperInstructor’s nameDate submittedYou must include an introductory paragraph with a succinct thesis statement.You must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.You must conclude with a restatement of the thesis and a conclusion paragraph.You must use APA style as outlined in your approved APA style guide to document all sources.You must include, on the final pages, a reference page followed by an annotated bibliography that is completed according to APA style as outlined in your approved APA style guide.

Do NOT include quotes as they do not add to the critical analysis of the content.

Do NOT write in short (1-3 sentence) paragraphs.

Do NOT include bullet points or numbered items.

Do NOT include research older than five years.

All images and tables belong in the Appendix section of the paper (after the Annotated Bibliography) and are not considered part of the body content.

Do include citations in your paragraphs.

BIOPSYCHOLOGY WK 7 It will be a thorough review and discussion of a disorder you chose from the list below when completing your Week 3 Paper Preparation assignment. It is important to note that this i
KLINEFELTER’S SYNDROME Klinefelter’s Syndrome Jordan Ogden American Military University May 16th, 2022 Klinefelter’s Syndrome Topic When a male is born with an extra X chromosome, he develops the hereditary disorder known as Klinefelter syndrome. When a guy is an adult, he is likely to be diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome. Patients with Klinefelter syndrome may have smaller testicles and reduced testosterone production due to issues with testicular growth. Hair loss on the body and face can occur due to the disorder. This illness can cause a wide range of symptoms, and not everyone has the same ones. Some men with Klinefelter syndrome may be able to have children through in vitro fertilization, even though their sperm production is often low or nonexistent. A wide range of signs and symptoms can be seen in men with Klinefelter syndrome. Klinefelter syndrome affects children in two ways: they have no symptoms or only a few. Most likely won’t be noticed until well into adulthood. As a result of the illness, some people will experience changes in their looks or growth. In most affected boys with Klinefelter syndrome (KS), also known as the 47, XXY syndrome, an extra copy of the X chromosome is detected. Klinefelter syndrome (KS) affects men born with an extra copy of the X chromosome. The most visible indicators of male infertility are undeveloped or dysfunctional testicles to varying degrees. Many people are unaware they have the illness since the symptoms are so modest. Some of the more obvious symptoms of this illness include becoming taller, having less body hair, experiencing breast growth, and being less interested in sex. Other symptoms include a decrease in sex drive and a decrease in breast growth. It is common for a child’s first awareness of these symptoms to occur with the onset of puberty. On the other hand, reading and communication challenges are more common than intelligence limitations. Intelligence is widely considered a normal characteristic. Klinefelter syndrome does not have a known cause. The extra X chromosome comes from both the father and the mother, and each contributes nearly the same amount. A child born to an older mother has a slightly greater risk of developing KS. To be diagnosed with the syndrome, you must have more than 46 cells, known as having an additional X or more chromosomes on top of the standard Y chromosome. KS can be detected using a karyotype, a genetic test. Despite the lack of a known cure, treatment options exist, and some may be useful. It’s possible that experimenting with various forms of treatment will prove fruitful. Testosterone replacement therapy can help men with dangerously low male hormone levels. Thesis This research paper will majorly focus on the Klinefelter Syndrome, causes, and effects; it also summarizes five major articles done on the Klinefelter Syndrome, as described below: Annotated Bibliography Nieschlag, E. (2013). Klinefelter Syndrome. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International. https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2013.0347 The author discusses various aspects of the Klinefelter Syndrome, summarized as follows. It is estimated that between 0.1 and 0.2 percent of all newborn male children are affected by Klinefelter syndrome (KS), associated with the karyotype 47, XXY. This makes it one of the most common congenital chromosomal abnormalities found in males. It is responsible for hypogonadism as well as infertility. However, up to this point, a diagnosis of KS was only given to approximately one-quarter of all people who had the condition during their lifetimes. If medical professionals were better familiar with and sensitive to the primary signs of KS, in particular the small, hard testicles, erectile dysfunction, and the comorbidities, there would be fewer instances in which the diagnosis of KS was missed. Patients would have a better chance of receiving early treatment, which would improve their quality of life if the diagnosis were made more frequently. Dobs, A., & Matsumoto, A. (2009). Klinefelter Syndrome. The Journal Of Clinical Endocrinology &Amp Metabolism, 94(12), f2-f2. https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem.94.12.9990 The most prevalent form of sex chromosomal abnormalities, Klinefelter syndrome, affects around one in every 500 to 700 miles. Chromosomes are components of all cells in the body and are responsible for determining a person’s sexual orientation. Extra chromosomes are not passed down from parents but rather result from a random chance event. The Klinefelter syndrome is associated with an increased risk of developing autoimmune disorders, osteoporosis, and varicose veins. Malignancies that affect the blood, bone marrow, or lymph nodes are among the cancers more likely to strike XXY males than other types. Treatment maintained throughout one’s life can help avoid chronic health problems. Bearelly, P., & Oates, R. (2019). Recent advances in managing and understanding Klinefelter syndrome. F1000research, 8, 112. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.16747.1 According to Bearelly and Oates (2019), earlier TESE sperm recovery does not improve sperm retrieval efficiency. The authors speculate that X-chromosomal transcripts and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are involved. When these were examined for sperm, they found none at median ages of 23 (range 15–26) and 20.5 (range 17–48). Only 14 of the 138 KS guys and their partners who started treatment had a live delivery. KS population’s low (or nonexistent) adult testicular spermatogenesis was linked to fetal testis’s inability to develop Gonocytes into pre-spermatogonia appropriately. According to their judgment, more research and exploration will be required soon. Males with delayed puberty and no virilization may benefit from testosterone replacement therapy. Several studies show that TRT has little effect on sperm retrieval rates in patients with KS 53 and 54. Forti, G., Corona, G., Vignozzi, L., Krausz, C., & Maggi, M. (2010). Klinefelter’s Syndrome: A Clinical and Therapeutical Update. Sexual Development, 4(4-5), 249-258. https://doi.org/10.1159/000316604 Only 3–4% of men who cannot have children have Klinefelter’s syndrome, but 10–12% of men with azoospermia do. Because the symptoms are so uncommon, only 10% of patients with Klinefelter are diagnosed before puberty. Adult Klinefelter patients’ phenotypes range from clinically evident hypogonadism to normal virilization in men. They are diagnosed during an infertility test for a couple. Only Azoospermia or Cryptozoospermia and modest testicular size are present clinically. About two-thirds of Klinefelter patients are not diagnosed because their symptoms alter and reoccur (androgen deficiency and infertility). People with Klinefelter syndrome with hypogonadism with low or normal testosterone and high LH concentrations require testosterone treatment at puberty. Even if no medical treatment is available, up to 50% of people who cannot have children can obtain sperm from their testicles for use in assisted reproduction. Even though no one can foresee how successfully sperm retrieval will function, 101 children with normal karyotypes have been born in the last 15 years. A normal karyotype and nonobstructive azoospermia impact the children of Klinefelter patients in the same way; hence the risk to future generations is the same. Williams, L., Pankratz, N., Lane, J., Krailo, M., Roesler, M., & Richardson, M. et al. (2018). Klinefelter syndrome in males with germ cell tumors: A Children’s Oncology Group report. Cancer, 124(19), 3900-3908. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31667 The most prevalent chromosome abnormalities are Klinefelter syndrome (KS), and it is also the most common cause of male infertility. In recent years, we have been able to acquire a greater level of clarity regarding the management of KS in children, the clinical symptoms of KS, reproductive difficulties, and prenatal and postnatal screening for the disease. This article aims to serve as a reference for clinical practice regarding KS by presenting an overview of the epidemiology, clinical symptoms, pathophysiological mechanism, laboratory evaluation, medication therapy, and use of assisted reproductive technologies. In addition to that, we will talk about KS screening.
BIOPSYCHOLOGY WK 7 It will be a thorough review and discussion of a disorder you chose from the list below when completing your Week 3 Paper Preparation assignment. It is important to note that this i
20 A Multifaceted Approach to Treatment of Prader-Willi Syndrome Student Name American Public University Date Abstract Prader-Willi Syndrome is a genetic disorder that has psychiatric, behavioral, physical, emotional, and environmental components. Some of these include stunted growth, hypotonia, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, social difficulties, and obesity. Due to the wide-reaching and complex nature of this disorder, a multifaceted approach must be taken in Prader-Willi Syndrome patients. This approach can include pharmacological intervention, cognitive behavior therapy, and environmental control. The purpose of this well-rounded approach is to increase the quality of life for patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome. Research shows that by addressing every aspect of the symptoms of Prader-Willi Syndrome, the patient is better able to adjust to life in spite of the disorder. A Multifaceted Approach to Treatment of Prader-Willi Syndrome Introduction The purpose of this paper is to show that a multifaceted approach needs to be undertaken in the treatment of Prader-Willi Syndrome. Prader-Willi Syndrome is a genetic disorder that has psychiatric, behavioral, physical, emotional, and environmental components. All of these must be addressed in order to improve the quality of life in a patient with Prader-Willi Syndrome. Symptoms such as hypotonia and stunted growth can be seen as early as infancy. Obsessive and compulsive behaviors involving food, skin picking, and ritualistic organizing begin around age two. Throughout their lifetime, those with Prader-Willi Syndrome are at high risk of social difficulties, diabetes, and obesity (Woodcock, 2009). The purpose of these studies is to show that the treatment of Prader-Willi Syndrome needs to be a well-rounded one. One study gives an overview of the cognitive functioning, maladaptive behaviors, intervention, management, and pharmacotherapy involved in a patient with Prader-Willi Syndrome (Dykens & Shah, 2003). This article will give a better understanding of the epidemiology and management of this disorder. The second study states that individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome exhibit significant clinical levels of internalizing and externalizing distress (Reddy & Pfeiffer, 2007). This article emphasizes the statistically higher instances of psychopathology in sufferers of Prader-Willi Syndrome. The third study examines a pathway between genetic characteristics and behavior profiles in Prader-Willi Syndrome. This article shows that there is an association between the behavior of the Prader-Willi sufferer with the environment and genetic components (Woodcock, Oliver, & Humphreys, 2009). The fourth study gives a specific example of how the medication Risperidone can successfully aid Prader-Willi patients in decreasing aggressiveness and impulsiveness, as well as controlling their insatiable need for food. This article shows the benefits of pharmacological intervention in the treatment of Prader-Willi Syndrome. The final study examines the benefits of occupational therapy in patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome. This article promotes creative play in order to help the Prader-Willi patient increase his comfort level in social situations. All of these studies will show the best approach to treatment of Prader-Willi Syndrome is one that incorporates genetics, environment, and emotion. Thesis The purpose of this paper is to show that by combining behavioral therapy, environmental control, and pharmacology when necessary, the quality of life of individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome can be increased. By reviewing multiple studies, this paper will be able to show that Prader-Willi Syndrome requires a multifaceted approach to treatment, due to the epigenetic etiology of this disorder. The interest in preparing this paper comes from the need for a more complete understanding of the well-rounded approach needed in the treatment of Prader-Willi Syndrome. By considering the epigenetic etiology of this disorder, researchers can continue to find more effective ways to increase the quality of life for these individuals. History Before Prader-Willi Syndrome was officially named as a disorder, it was described by Charles Dickens. In 1836, Dickens created a character named Joe in The Pickwick Papers. Dickens defined Joe’s physical characteristics as fat, red-faced, and being in a state of somnolency (Wickens, 2009). This account resembled the disorder that would finally be recognized in 1956 by Prader, Labhart, and Willi (Reddy & Pfeiffer, 2007). Early on, researchers discovered that individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome all have similar physical characteristics. These include stunted growth and obesity due to an insatiable obsession with food (Wickens, 2009). Stunted growth and obesity can be compared to the overweight, sleepy boy that was outlined in Dickens’ literary work. The historical perspective of individuals with Prader-Will Syndrome is that in addition to the similar physical characteristics, they also share congruent psychiatric and behavioral attributes. This view has not changed over time. Researchers have been able to build on this information in order to create a more complete picture of the causes and symptoms of Prader-Willi Syndrome. Currently, there is no cure for Prader-Willi Syndrome. However, multiple studies have been conducted in order to analyze the best treatment options for patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome. The focus throughout the history of this disorder has been to improve the quality of life as much as possible for these patients. This has been achieved through pharmacological intervention, cognitive behavior therapy, occupational therapy, environmental supervision, and parental involvement. Advances are being made in multifaceted approaches to treatment of Prader-Willi Syndrome. Researchers are finding that treating all aspects of this disorder’s symptomatology gives the best hope for these patients to live a more fulfilling life. Epigenetic Etiology Prader-Willi Syndrome is a disorder with both genetic and environmental causes. Genetically, seventy percent of the cases are caused by the deletion of active genes from the long arm of chromosome 15 during the early stages of fetal development (Wickens, 2009). This is a lack of paternally derived imprinted information to that chromosome (Dykens & Shah, 2003). Twenty-five percent of the cases are a result of an individual inheriting two copies of chromosome 15 from the mother, instead of one from each parent (Wickens, 2009). The remaining cases are due to chromosomal translocations or defects of the imprinting center (Woodcock, Oliver, & Humphreys, 2009). Prader-Willi Syndrome is the first known human disorder that shows the effects of genomic imprinting (Dykens & Shah, 2003). In addition to the genetic aspect, the environment also plays a role in this disorder. Research has suggested there are at least two pathways that exist between the genetic traits and behaviors common in Prader-Willi Syndrome (Woodcock, Oliver, & Humphreys, 2009). The first pathway is created by the effect of the genetic status of an individual with Prader-Willi Syndrome. The patient’s development of the central nervous system is altered, which causes the patient to be extremely sensitive to change (Woodcock, Oliver, & Humphreys, 2009). Thus, if the patient’s environment is disrupted, the genetic component of the patient causes negative emotional behavior. The second pathway relates to the pattern of behavior the patient exhibits when aversive stimuli are present (Woodcock, Oliver, & Humphreys, 2009). If the environment is not conducive to the patient’s need for specific routine, the genetic component of Prader-Willi Syndrome causes the patient to become explosively angry and anxious. Prader-Willi Syndrome is an inherited condition due to the mutations to several genes (Wickens, 2009). However, the environment has a very large impact on these patients. Prader-Willi Syndrome is a disorder in which the environmental effects on a genetically predisposed behavior can be seen in the patient as a clear gene-environment interaction (Woodcock, Oliver, & Humphreys, 2009). This disorder causes genetic physical, behavioral, psychiatric and emotional symptoms. In addition, the patient’s environment is an important part of helping these patients live a quality and lower stress-filled life. Symptoms and Treatments Prader-Willi Syndrome affects 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 25,000 people (Wickens, 2009). Prader-Willi patients exhibit physical, cognitive, psychological, and behavioral symptoms. Physical symptoms can be seen as early as infancy with almond shaped eyes, narrow forehead, downturned lips, hypotonia (weak muscle tone) and feeding difficulties (Wickens, 2009). As the child grows, stunted growth, poor motor coordination, and abnormal sleeping patterns become apparent (Wickens, 2009). Probably the most dangerous physical symptoms that Prader-Willi Syndrome patients suffer from are obesity and diabetes. These patients have a reduced metabolic rate, as well as a ratio of high fat versus lean body mass, so they require fewer calories than average (Wickens, 2009). Unfortunately, another symptom of Prader-Willi Syndrome is an insatiable obsession with food that appears around ages 2 to 4 years old (Wickens, 2009). These patients never feel full, so weight gain and the resulting complications are common among this population. Cognitively, Prader-Willi patients are challenged with learning disabilities and weakness in short-term memory, with the average IQ being 65 to 70 (Dykens & Shah, 2003). Prader-Willi Syndrome patients also suffer from psychological symptoms. Researchers have found that these patients experience clinical levels of psychopathology in both internalizing and externalizing disorders (Reddy & Pfeiffer, 2007). Some of these include anxiety, sadness, low self-esteem, withdrawal, isolation, negativity, and (more rarely) visual or auditory hallucinations (Dykens & Shah, 2003). Probably the most debilitating psychological symptom patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome endure is obsessive-compulsive behavior. The obsessive behavior is manifested through hoarding, repeated questioning, repetitive rituals (such as arranging objects by color or shape), skin picking, and obsession with food (Dykens & Shah, 2003). Individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome are also prone to behavioral symptoms. Many of these can be witnessed when there is an uncomfortable change in environment or when food is withheld. Some of these can include violent temper tantrums, extreme stubbornness, irritability, impulsivity, emotional lability, and disobedience (Reddy & Pfeiffer, 2006). The gene status of Prader-Willi Syndrome affects nervous system development, which gives these patients a predisposition to anxiety and an aversion to change. Thus, when their routine is unsettled or they are not allowed food to satisfy their constant hunger, they have a very difficult time coping. A multifaceted approach to treatment of individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome is the best way to increase their quality of life. Some of these treatments are patient-focused and some are targeted to the environment and the patient’s support system. Some patient-focused treatments include growth hormone therapy for short stature, poor muscle mass and tone, speech-language therapy to improve articulation, social skills training, pharmacological intervention for anxiety and obsessive behaviors, and cognitive-behavior and occupational therapy (Dykens & Shah, 2003). These treatments involve the patients in their own care by giving them the tools to feel empowered and communicate with others. Other treatments teach the patient’s caretakers how to best assist the patient with his nutritional needs and subsequent behavioral issues. These treatments include a very strict, low-calorie diet, consistent weigh-ins, regular physical activity, locks on the refrigerator and cabinets if needed, daily routine, and transitional cues before changes occur (Dykens & Shah, 2003). Close supervision of the patient and the patient’s environment is important. Hyperphagia drives these patients to go to any lengths to acquire food because they never feel full. This is what leads to obesity and diabetes, which can be deadly for the patient. Caregivers must be vigilant and remember that controlling the patient’s food intake is in the best interest of the patient. Scheduling meals, snacks, and exercise can guide the patient to understand what to expect throughout the day. Not only will this help to maintain the patient’s weight, but it will also satisfy the patient’s need for routine. Consistency is the key to lower stress levels and an increased quality of life for individuals who suffer from Prader-Willi Syndrome. Research Articles Evaluation and Summation The first research article gives an overview of the cognitive functioning, maladaptive behaviors, intervention, management, and pharmacotherapy involved in a patient with Prader-Willi Syndrome (Dykens & Shah, 2003). The purpose of this study is to give a better understanding of the epidemiology and management of this disorder. According to this article, patients suffer from hyperphaiga, employ a high risk of nonfood, compulsive behaviors, function in the mild range of intellectual disability, are prone to severe behavioral problems, have a high rate of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and sometimes show psychotic symptoms (Dykens & Shah, 2003). This article outlines a multifaceted treatment plan for individuals who suffer from Prader-Willi Syndrome. These treatments include growth hormone therapy, physical and occupational therapies, speech-language therapy, social skills training, close supervision around food, an exercise plan, a daily routine, and pharmacotherapy in some cases (Dykens & Shah, 2003). The authors emphasize the benefits of the medication-free treatment routes. However, they do examine research that has shown that some medications (such as Mazindol, Fenfluramine, and SSRIs) have successfully decreased some patients’ symptoms (Dykens & Shah, 2003). The second research article states that individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome exhibit significant clinical levels of internalizing and externalizing distress (Reddy & Pfeiffer, 2007). This study emphasizes the statistically higher instances of psychopathology in sufferers of Prader-Willi Syndrome. The authors chose 73 children and adolescents aged from 7 to 21 years as participants in this study. Diagnoses ranged from Prader-Willi Syndrome only, mental retardation only, and mental retardation with a coexisting psychiatric disorder (Reddy & Pfeiffer, 2007). The participants’ levels of psychopathology was rated using the Devereux Scales of Mental Disorders, clinical interviews were given, and MANOVAs and d-ratios were used for data analysis (Reddy & Pfeiffer, 2007). The results show that the children and adolescents with Prader-Willi Syndrome displayed significantly higher levels of psychopathology than their mental retardation only peers, and also were comparable to those who have comorbidity. The third research article examines a pathway between genetic characteristics and behavior profiles in Prader-Willi Syndrome. This study shows that there is an association between the behavior of the Prader-Willi sufferer with the environment and genetic components (Woodcock, Oliver, & Humphreys, 2009). The authors create a hypothetical model that combines relative knowledge with ideas of future study. This allows a comprehensive model to be built that identifies important influences without the necessity of details (Woodcock, Oliver & Humphreys, 2009). This model outlines hypotheses related to specific behaviors in individuals with Prader-Will Syndrome, how they are interrelated, and how they could be tested (Woodcock, Oliver, & Humphreys, 2009). For example, the authors hypothesize that neural abnormalities in areas of the prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and parietal cortices may be the cause of the task-switching deficit in these patients (Woodcock, Oliver, & Humphreys, 2009). The authors then state that this hypothesis could be tested by using an MRI while the patient is completing a task-switching activity. The fourth research article gives a specific example of how the medication Risperidone can successfully aid Prader-Willi patients in decreasing aggressiveness and impulsiveness, as well as controlling their insatiable need for food. This study shows the benefits of pharmacological intervention in the treatment of Prader-Willi Syndrome. The authors discuss the case study of an 11-year old boy who was diagnosed with Prader-Willi Syndrome. Previously, he had been given Mazindol and Fluvoxamine, however his symptoms showed no improvement. After being admitted to the psychiatric department of a hospital, he was prescribed Risperidone. Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic agent which is an antagonist against dopamine D2 and serotonin 2A receptors (Shunsuke, Ohji, Shiota, Dobashi, Shimono, & Shirahata, 2010). Due to the medication, there was a decrease in impulsiveness and aggressiveness. The final research article examines the benefits of occupational therapy in patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome. This study promotes creative play in order to help the Prader-Willi patient increase his comfort level in social situations. The authors analyze a case study involving a 5 year old boy named Felipe. Felipe has Prader-Willi Syndrome and turns to his own activities (such as puzzles) for comfort (Takatori & Oshiro, 2009). Having trouble with new social situations and change, his parents decided to pursue occupational therapy for treatment. The therapist made adaptations of devices in order to make play easier for Felipe, built a slow trust with him, and found different ways to play the games he was comfortable with. The occupational therapy resulted in an increase in autonomy, classroom participation, and activity participation (Takatori & Oshiro, 2009). Synthesis and Conclusion Prader-Willi Syndrome is a disorder that is apparent from infancy and has no cure. Many of the symptoms are caused by the gene status of Prader-Willi. One example of this is slow development and sexual maturation. Research has shown that these could be due to the dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (Wickens, 2009). Another example is the eating abnormalities that these patients suffer from. Research has found that a reduction of the appetite- suppressing oxytocin-containing cells have been found in these patients (Wickens, 2009). There are also environmental factors involved in Prader-Willi Syndrome. This disorder affects nervous system development. This causes the patient to have a predisposition to anxiety and an aversion to change. Thus, the environment has a direct effect on the patient’s emotional well-being. Individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome prefer routine and consistency. They have difficulty adjusting to change. If there is an unexpected alteration in schedule, the patient will act out in the form of temper tantrums, skin picking, or rebellion. These behaviors can also be witnessed if food is withheld from the patient. This is because they suffer from hyperphagia and never feel full. Genetics and the environment both play a role in Prader-Willi Syndrome. They cause psychiatric, behavioral, cognitive, physical, and emotional symptoms in the patient. Due to the complex nature of this disorder, all aspects must be addressed in order to give the patient the help he needs. Treatment should consist of cognitive-behavior and occupational therapy, environmental control, and pharmacological intervention when necessary. Both the patient and the patient’s support system should be actively involved in treatment. Through the research articles discussed, it has been shown that a multifaceted approach to treatment is the most effective way to increase the quality of life for individuals who suffer from Prader-Willi Syndrome. References: Araki, S., Ohji, T., Shiota, N., Dobashi, K., Shimono, M., & Shirahata, A. (2010). Successful Risperidone Treatment for Behavioral Disturbances in Prader–Willi Syndrome. Pediatrics International, 52(1), e1-e3. doi:10.1111/j.1442-200X.2009.02996.x Dykens, E., & Shah, B. (2003). Psychiatric Disorders in Prader-Willi Syndrome: Epidemiology and Management. CNS Drugs, (17)3, 167-178. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Reddy, L. A., & Pfeiffer, S. I. (2007). Behavioral and Emotional Symptoms of Children and Adolescents with Prader-Willi Syndrome. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 37(5), 830-839. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0210-2 Takatori, M., & Oshiro, M. (2009). Playing to Create New Ways of Playing: A Child With Prader–Willi Syndrome. Journal of Developmental & Physical Disabilities, 21(2), 139-152. doi:10.1007/s10882-009-9132-1 Wickens, A. (2009). Introduction to Biopsychology (3rd Edition). London: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Woodcock, K. A., Oliver, C. C., & Humphreys, G. W. (2009). A Specific Pathway Can Be Identified Between Genetic Characteristics and Behavior Profiles in Prader-Willi Syndrome Via Cognitive, Environmental and Physiological Mechanisms. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 53(6), 493-500. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2009.01167.x Annotated Bibliography Araki, S., Ohji, T., Shiota, N., Dobashi, K., Shimono, M., & Shirahata, A. (2010). Successful Risperidone Treatment for Behavioral Disturbances in Prader–Willi Syndrome. Pediatrics International, 52(1), e1-e3. doi:10.1111/j.1442-200X.2009.02996.x This article analyzes a case study of a pharmacological treatment on a child with Prader-Willi Syndrome. The authors discuss how a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and the medication Risperidone helped an 11 year old boy with Prader-Willi Syndrome improve his lifestyle. Risperidone successfully decreased instances of impulsiveness and aggressiveness. The medication also had no reported side effects. I will use this research to highlight the positive use of medication in the treatment of Prader-Willi Syndrome. Dykens, E., & Shah, B. (2003). Psychiatric Disorders in Prader-Willi Syndrome: Epidemiology and Management. CNS Drugs, (17)3, 167-178. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. This article discusses an overall comprehensive review of the epidemiology and management of Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Behavioral and psychiatric problems that are the hallmark of this disorder are addressed. Some of these include obsessive-compulsive behaviors, hyperphagia, and other maladaptive behaviors according to genetic subtypes (paternal versus maternal deletion). This article is relevant to my research by showing the consistency of similarity regarding genetics and behavior in patients with PWS. The information regarding treatment of PWS is also relevant to my research, as this article shows a multifaceted approach. Reddy, L. A., & Pfeiffer, S. I. (2007). Behavioral and Emotional Symptoms of Children and Adolescents with Prader-Willi Syndrome. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 37(5), 830-839. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0210-2 This article discusses how individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome face extreme obstacles in adaptive functioning due to their biological, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional challenges. The debilitating aspects of their symptoms, such as obesity, diabetes, self-injury and public temper outbursts, are examined. This study compares the levels of psychopathology in children and adolescents with PWS with those who are diagnosed with mental retardation only and those diagnosed with comorbidity. This article is relevant to my research by showing that individuals with PWS suffer from a significant clinical level of internalizing and externalizing distress, compared to those with mental retardation only. The PWS sufferers scored comparably with peers who suffer comorbidity. I will use this research to help show the complexity of this disorder. Takatori, M., & Oshiro, M. (2009). Playing to Create New Ways of Playing: A Child With Prader–Willi Syndrome. Journal of Developmental & Physical Disabilities, 21(2), 139-152. doi:10.1007/s10882-009-9132-1 This article evaluates the option of creating new ways to play that will assist the Prader-Willi Syndrome sufferer with discovering new ways to communicate socially. Occupational therapy is used to help the patient experience situations in ways that can be used in everyday life interactions. Brazilian therapeutical conduct is demonstrated. By guiding the child to different ways of playing, the therapist creates an environment where the child feels safe with experimenting with routines that are out of his norm. This article will be used to show that a child with Prader-Willi Syndrome can be helped in regards to social situations. Wickens, A. (2009). Introduction to Biopsychology (3rd Edition). London: Pearson/Prentice Hall. The information from our textbook discusses a little of the history of Prader-Will Syndrome. It mentions the statistics of the number of occurrences. The textbook also gives a timeline of which symptoms can be observed during which stage of the individual’s life. This information is relevant to my research because it outlines general information. Along with the symptoms, the textbook gives an explanation of the genetic factors of PWS. This is important to mention in my paper because it shows how a biological explanation can help to foster treatment options. Woodcock, K. A., Oliver, C. C., & Humphreys, G. W. (2009). A Specific Pathway Can Be Identified Between Genetic Characteristics and Behavior Profiles in Prader-Willi Syndrome Via Cognitive, Environmental and Physiological Mechanisms. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 53(6), 493-500. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2009.01167.x This article discusses the interaction between the genetic predispositions for behavior of individuals with PWS with their environmental influences. There are a number of hypotheses that are mentioned, along with how they may be tested. These hypotheses have a biological, environmental, and emotional basis. This article is relevant to my research by showing a hypothetical model that takes into account important influences of PWS. I will use this examination of a pathway between genetics and behavior through cognitive, environmental and physiological mechanisms in order to pinpoint the importance of a well-rounded treatment plan.

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