Question 1 of 40
Ellen and Mike are trying to decide where to go for an anniversary dinner. Mike says to Ellen, “Okay, you can have anything you want. We can do Chinese, Italian, Thai, Mexican, or Spanish food. If you want sushi, that is fine, or we can go to an upscale steakhouse! I’m even fine if you want to go get a few fast-food burgers and then go for ice cream. So what will it be?” According to the concept of decision aversion, what is Ellen likely to choose?
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A. Ellen is likely to get angry at Mike for not choosing dinner. [removed]
B. Ellen is likely to make no choice at all. [removed]
C. Ellen will choose the most expensive meal, since Mike gave her the option of choosing anything she wants. [removed]
D. Ellen will consider which meal she likes the best and choose a restaurant that will serve that meal.
Question 2 of 40
__________ is a rare disorder that occasionally accompanies autism in which a person of below-average intelligence has an extraordinary ability.
A. Impulsive ability syndrome [removed]
B. Savant syndrome [removed]
C. Prodigy disorder [removed]
D. Schizoaffective disorder
Question 3 of 40
The __________ state refers to a problem-solving condition in which a person has incomplete or unsatisfactory information.
A. initial [removed]
B. boggled [removed]
C. inadequate [removed]
Question 4 of 40
The __________ bias describes the effect that occurs when a person’s existing ways of thinking distort his or her logical decisions.
A. hindsight [removed]
B. representative [removed]
C. heuristic [removed]
Question 5 of 40
Have you ever been distracted while you were speaking and accidentally switched the sounds of two words? For example, a person might mean to say, “I’m going to get a turkey sandwich” and instead say, “I’m going to get a surkey tandwich.” This type of expressive inversion is called a __________.
A. phonemic reversal [removed]
B. syntactic switch [removed]
C. spoonerism [removed]
Question 6 of 40
The term book knowledge most resembles __________ intelligence from the theory of Robert Sternberg.
A. analytic [removed]
B. emotional [removed]
C. practical [removed]
Question 7 of 40
Which of the following is one of the aspects of intelligence according to the theory of psychologist Robert Sternberg?
A. interpersonal intelligence [removed]
B. crystallized intelligence [removed]
C. intrapersonal intelligence [removed]
D. creative intelligence
Question 8 of 40
The __________ fallacy is a phenomenon that causes people to believe that additional information increases the probability that a statement is true, even though that probability actually decreased.
A. hindsight [removed]
B. irrationality [removed]
C. conjunction [removed]
Question 9 of 40
Going from broad to specific conclusions is called __________, while going from specific examples to broad conclusions is called __________ reasoning.
A. theoretical; analytical [removed]
B. deductive; inductive [removed]
C. analytical; theoretical [removed]
D. inductive; deductive
Question 10 of 40
Research finds that strong central __________ functioning, the set of mental processes that governs goals, strategies, and coordination of the mind’s activities, is related to higher intelligence.
A. executive [removed]
B. cognitive [removed]
C. psychic [removed]
Question 11 of 40
Recently, Marika had to end an eighteen-month-long relationship with Joshua, a man with whom she was deeply in love. She recognized, however, that they did not want the same things out of life; specifically, Joshua wanted to get married someday, and Marika was not interested in marriage. Though they tried to work out a compromise, it was not going to work out. Even though ending the relationship was painful, Marika was able to understand and manage her own feelings, even to the point of helping Joshua through the break-up with as little pain as possible. Marika is clearly very gifted in the area of __________ intelligence.
A. self-aware [removed]
B. intrapersonal [removed]
C. savant [removed]
Question 12 of 40
As Rebekah is driving to the hotel where her business convention is being held, she finds that she cannot quite figure out how to get there. The set of __________, which consists of the steps she would need to figure out how to get to her destination, might first have her (1. pull to the side of the road, (2. retrieve her GPS unit from the glove compartment, (3. plug in the unit, (4. type in the address of her destination, and (5. follow the verbal commands until she gets to the hotel.
A. best fits [removed]
B. reductions [removed]
C. functionality [removed]
Question 13 of 40
During a lecture on the dangers of stereotypes, Dr. Humphrey stated to her class, “As an example of a commonly held stereotype, some people believe that African-American individuals are less intelligent than Caucasian individuals.” A student in her class who was not paying attention only heard her say, “African-American individuals are less intelligent than Caucasian individuals.” Clearly there will be a problem based on this miscommunication, but the real issue is that the __________ of the issue that was provided by the teacher was different than that which was received by the student.
A. communication [removed]
B. schema [removed]
C. point of view [removed]
Question 14 of 40
__________ is the cognitive process of organizing information or beliefs into a series of steps to reach conclusions.
A. Verbalizing [removed]
B. Reasoning [removed]
C. Concentrating [removed]
D. Schematic processing
Question 15 of 40
All politicians are dirty, crooked, and dishonest, right? How many examples of dirty politicians can you come up with? The fact that you might be able to immediately think of a few examples of dirty politicians may lead you to believe that all politicians are, in fact, dishonest. This is an example of the __________ heuristic.
A. conjunction [removed]
B. confirmation [removed]
C. availability [removed]
Question 16 of 40
A very popular book that discusses common grammatical errors is called Eats, Shoots and Leaves. This book title is humorous because the __________ ambiguity allows for two possible interpretations of the thought: (1. a person had a meal, pulled out and fired a gun, and then exited, or (2. an animal consumes both shoots and leaves as part of its diet.
A. semantic [removed]
B. lexical [removed]
C. structural [removed]
Question 17 of 40
Linguistic __________ states that different languages impose different conceptions of reality. A prime example of this is the fact that the ancient Mayan culture had no word that meant “zero,” and thus their reality did not include a concept of the “absence of value.”
A. morphism [removed]
B. determinism [removed]
C. relativism [removed]
Question 18 of 40
Jill is thirteen years old and has been taking ballet class for four years. Her teacher is very impressed with her skill and has suggested that Jill and her parents consider whether she could be able to have a career in dance. According to Gardner’s theory, Jill has a strength in __________ intelligence.
A. bodily/kinesthetic [removed]
B. naturalistic [removed]
C. spatial [removed]
Question 19 of 40
When it comes to testing the intelligence of people from different cultural backgrounds who live in the same community, which of the following statements is the most accurate?
A. It may be impossible to create an intelligence test completely free of cultural bias. [removed]
B. As long as the IQ test is given in a uniform manner, the influence of different cultural backgrounds is minimal and it is not necessary to consider those differences. [removed]
C. The only time an IQ test has cultural bias is if the test administrator has a particular desire to act in a way that discriminates against the test taker. [removed]
D. Cultural bias is not something that needs to be considered, but gender bias is a very salient topic in the world of intelligence testing.
Question 20 of 40
“Samuel wears a hat. All baseball players wear a hat. Therefore, Samuel is a baseball player.” The preceding is an inaccurate conclusion based on two premises. “Samuel is a baseball player. All baseball players wear a hat. Therefore, Samuel wears a hat.” The preceding is an accurate conclusion based on two premises. Even though only one of these statements comes to an accurate conclusion, they both use a __________.
A. discursion [removed]
B. induction [removed]
C. syllogism [removed]
Question 21 of 40
Which of the following is an example of a primary sex characteristic?
A. changes in vocal tone [removed]
B. growth of the breasts [removed]
C. growth of facial hair [removed]
D. growth of the genitals
Question 22 of 40
Which theorist led the case for the influence of social interactions on cognitive development?
A. Urie Bronfrenbrenner [removed]
B. Lev Vygotsky [removed]
C. Sigmund Freud [removed]
D. Jean Piaget
Question 23 of 40
According to theory, which is supported by research, if children are deprived of the opportunity to learn language in the years before __________, it will be very difficult if not impossible for them to ever master the rules of grammar.
A. entering school [removed]
B. adolescence [removed]
C. toddlerhood [removed]
Question 24 of 40
Though the recent research has its problems, it has suggested which of the following trends about intelligence changes as we age?
A. Intelligence is generally very stable, and may even increase into later adulthood. [removed]
B. Intelligence is a very static phenomenon – there are no significant changes that occur over the course of the lifespan. [removed]
C. Intelligence is an inverted U-shaped curve – it starts low, increases through childhood into adulthood, and then shows a significant decline as we get over the age of seventy years. [removed]
D. Intelligence is a linear phenomenon – it slowly increases as we age from childhood to adulthood, getting higher the older we get.
Question 25 of 40
Which part of the brain experiences the greatest growth between the ages of three and six years?
A. temporal lobes [removed]
B. parietal lobes [removed]
C. frontal lobes [removed]
D. occipital lobes
Question 26 of 40
The fact that teenagers often feel like adults far earlier than they develop the ability to make sensible, well-thought-out decisions reflects the fact that the __________ often matures more quickly than the __________ lobe.
A. amygdala; parietal [removed]
B. hypothalamus; occipital [removed]
C. thalamus; temporal [removed]
D. limbic system; frontal
Question 27 of 40
When a parent wants a young child to look at something on the floor, the phenomenon called joint visual attention says that the parent should __________.
A. point to the object [removed]
B. look at that object [removed]
C. set the baby down in front of the object [removed]
D. lift the baby up so that he or she is looking down at the object
Question 28 of 40
The development of the __________ lobes of the cerebrum allows an adolescent to start developing the ability to reason.
A. temporal [removed]
B. occipital [removed]
C. parietal [removed]
Question 29 of 40
Despite popular believe that “most” people experience a crisis when they come to their middle adulthood years, recent research has found that only __________% of adults reported experiencing a midlife crisis.
A. 2 [removed]
B. 5 [removed]
C. 7 [removed]
Question 30 of 40
As Emily, a sixty-eight-year-old widow, went about her day, she was certain that there was something that she’d forgotten to do. Somewhere around 8:30 at night, she realized that she’d forgotten to go to the bank to buy traveler’s checks for her upcoming trip to Hawaii. This memory failure, which in this case was related to her __________ memory, is something that often declines in the later years.
A. proactive [removed]
B. executive [removed]
C. episodic [removed]
Question 31 of 40
Why does exercise help to reduce memory loss and brain decline in older adults?
A. Because exercise reduces our need to use medications, many of which cause damage to brain cells over time. [removed]
B. Because exercise stimulates neurons and actually helps the brain to grow new cells. [removed]
C. Because exercise helps increase the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the brain. [removed]
D. Because exercise helps to remove toxins from our system that are stored in fat cells.
Question 32 of 40
By the time a child reaches the age of around eighteen months, he or she will start rapidly learning new words and associating them with their meanings. In fact, children at this age may learn up to __________ new nouns every day!
A. ten [removed]
B. twenty-five [removed]
C. forty-five [removed]
Question 33 of 40
When young Ari was born, his father was absolutely amazed by the fact that his head was proportionally so much larger than the rest of his body. In talking with his wife, a developmental psychologist, about his reaction, she laughed and said, “Oh that’s so normal! Children tend to grow from top to bottom, in a pattern called the __________ rule.”
A. proximodistal [removed]
B. cephalocaudal [removed]
C. north-to-south [removed]
Question 34 of 40
Which of the following statements is the best summary of the cognitive development theory of Lev Vygotsky?
A. Cognitive development occurs on a social level before it occurs at the individual level. [removed]
B. Children are in need of strict boundaries from their parents so they can learn what to and what not to do. [removed]
C. Cognitive development occurs when children are left to their own devices, with as little influence as possible from outside factors. [removed]
D. Children are little scientists who learn by exploring.
Question 35 of 40
Which of the following is one of the stages of prenatal development?
A. zygotic stage [removed]
B. germinal stage [removed]
C. intra-utero stage [removed]
D. umbilical stage
Question 36 of 40
Which theorist suggested that we are born with a neurological mechanism that leaves us biologically prepared to use language skills?
A. Lev Vygotsky [removed]
B. Jean Piaget [removed]
C. Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck [removed]
D. Noam Chomsky
Question 37 of 40
“Raindrops keep falling on my head. And just like the guy whose feet are too big for his bed, nothing seems to fit!” These lyrics to a popular song describe a very uncomfortable sleeping arrangement! There are several ways this problem can be solved. If the singer chooses to cut off his feet so that he fits in the existing bed, this would be similar to the Piagetian concept of __________.
A. accommodation [removed]
B. adaptation [removed]
C. assimilation [removed]
D. schema transformation
Question 38 of 40
Why is it easier for men to make the psychological adjustment to the physical changes of andropause than it is for women to adjust to the physical changes of menopause?
A. Because research suggests that being male makes a person more psychologically resilient to changes in all areas of life. [removed]
B. Because the loss of estrogen makes women far more emotional than men, who are simply seeing a reduction in testosterone. [removed]
C. Because it is far easier to hide the symptoms of andropause than it is to hide the symptoms of menopause. [removed]
D. Because the changes associated with andropause are more subtle and appear over a longer period of time.
Question 39 of 40
Which of the following is true with regard to the order of development of motor skills?
A. Babies develop motor skills based on what they see, so it is largely a function of imitation. [removed]
B. Babies develop motor skills in very unique sequences, so there is no “order” of skills that is considered typical. [removed]
C. Motor development in babies has two predictable paths – one for sighted children and one for blind children. [removed]
D. Motor development tends to occur in a universal sequence and thus specific skills predictably develop before other skills.
Question 40 of 40
In Piaget’s theory, the term __________ refers to concepts or frameworks around which people organize and interpret information.
A. centrations [removed]
B. operations [removed]
C. schemas [removed]