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1.The job characteristics model is a guide managers can use to improve their employees performance. The five characteristics of the model help shape the job. Job enrichment changes the design of job enlargement. A manager can use the job characteristics model as a guide how they expect their employees to perform at work. They want their employees to take responsibility and accountability for their job. Use different kind of skills to complete an assignment efficiently. Managers also want to provide feedback to their employee’s to help design enrichment in the job. Employees and managers also want to take into consideration the 360-degree appraisal when giving feedback on the employee’s performance. According to the 360-degree appraisal is a review of the manager’s performance. As much as the manager wants to improve their employees performance they want to improve theres as well. Their employee’s performance reflects how their 360-degree appraisal is.
2. To enrich or enlarge employees’ jobs, managers should observe employees, and provide appraisals in order to establish strengths and needed improvements to maintain efficiency. If managers notice workers are unsatisfied with their job tasks or level of responsibility, they can seek ways to change up the dynamic/structure of job positions. Some ways to enrich jobs are to increase the level of skill variety a worker has, increase the amount of input a worker has for goods/services. Ways to enlarge an employee’s job is to provide him/her with more responsibility, authority, and freedom (autonomy). Allow employees to handle certain decisions about the job, how to perform it, when, and under which circumstances. Providing feedback to employees also increase the motivation of said workers. Managers need to let subordinates know when they are exceeding expectations and when their skills are lacking (George & Jones, 2017, p.236-237). In addition, subordinates, other managers, and consumers should perform 360-degree appraisals and feedback for the managers to know how they can improve their management skills, the function of the company, and re-evaluating the appraisal/feedback system of employees. When managers are informed of inconsistencies or drawbacks of promotions, benefits, or lateral moves, this allows them to make adjustments to benefit all stakeholders within the company. Poor working conditions and illegal management approaches may be reported in 360-degree feedback, which can eventually lead to changes in the law (p.412-422).