FOR WIZARD KIM PART 2

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This is a part 2 from the assignment you completed 2 weeks ago. I have posted the orginal and the instructions for part 2.

FOR WIZARD KIM PART 2
In Assignment 2:  In Assignment one (1) you choose from the six (6) problems children experience daily.  For this assignment, address the same issue from an applied perspective.   What is being done to address this problem? Is there a consensus about how to improve this problem, or is there a great deal of controversy? What solutions have already been tried for this problem? How successful have these solutions been? What are the barriers to solving this problem? What resources are available in YOUR community to deal with this problem?  Future approaches to the problem How will this problem be addressed in the future? How successful are these solutions likely to be? Research Paper or Opinion Paper?                        Research, NOT opinion Number of published, peer-reviewed sources required; must all be published within the last 8 years The textbook is one of the resources. Do not use any direct quotes from any sources                                                                  Five (5) Length required (not including title page and references Tables, graphs, charts, lists, figures, etc. may be used, however do not count toward the length requirement                                 800-1200 words Reference style required American Psychological Association, 6th edition Submission requirements Microsoft Word document submitted as attachment in Assignment Submission area.  Do not attach to a Message or email, and do not paste into Submission text box.
FOR WIZARD KIM PART 2
CHILDREN AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE 6 Children and Substance Abuse name school teacher July 30, 2017 Introduction Child abuse is a common issue happening in every part of the world. Child abuse is when an adult being the child parents or any other adult is imposing serious physical or emotional harm to the child. Child abuse involves acts involving physical torture, sexual harassment, neglecting the child and psychological abuse. From the results of national researches conducted, the records show that from the reported cases there are one million children every year abused in United States that resulting to large number of all the abused children in the world. Some cases are not reported due to fear of children to report to the government officials. The main victims of the act are the children and their future generations. The abused children are not able to acquire all the basic needs in life therefore they do not succeed as other children. Additionally psychological torture may affect the future health of the child like acquiring of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Bipolar Disorder among others (Chaffin, Kelleher & Hollenberg, 2010). Additional researches shows that younger children are the most vulnerable to maltreatment and victimization mostly those between months to two years. Substance abuse is an act of using illegal drugs by children. This behavior mainly crop up from parents who abuse drugs and leave them to children’s exposure. The child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act requires all the States to develop their own policies that prevent drug abuse in the homes which is the most exposed place to the children adopting the behavior. Additionally the Act aims at developing effective procedures to help the new born children who are exposed to prenatal drug abuse (Dore, Doris, & Wright, 2009). The problem of substance abuse by children is a form of child abuse. The parents or guardians are expected to guard and protect the children from such evils. Most of the substances being abused include; alcohol, marijuana, cocaine among others. An estimation of over 25 million children in America are using illicit substances. This is an estimation of about 10 % of the children’s population. The adolescences are the most frequent substance abusers where most the abused drug among them is Vicodin. The victims affected by substance abuse are the children themselves, parents and the society in general. Many children in the world are facing this problem where they end up performing poorly in schools and finally they become disinterested in life (Chaffin, Kelleher & Hollenberg, 2010). They also disappoint their parents and the society from their adopted social evils. Theories related to substance and children abuse There are various theories that explain the cause and prevention of both substance and children abuse. The theory of Intergenerational Transmission suggests that the victims of trauma during their childhood or those individuals who happened to witness abuse develop an abnormal perception of violence and are likely to cause abuse to their children (Briere, 2011). This can also explain why some mothers mistreat their children after being involved in abusive relationship. Mimetic theory suggests that when one is exposed to trauma can generate aggression where he or she is likely to impose modelled abuse behavior. In most cases the victim acts violently in the aim of imitating others. Family system theory explains that some factors are due to family interrelations. The theory states that in explaining the actions of a family member there must be a relation with the family context. In many families there are emotional stressors that related within the members. We can use this theory to explain cases of substance abuse by children of a certain family (Rohsenow, Corbett & Devine, 2011). Substance abuse maybe a main stressor in many families and it may involve consequently exposing the child to substance abuse. Authoritative parenting is one theory that can be used to explain the cause of substance abuse to children. This is the situation where the child has no opportunity to express themselves or communicate their problems. When children are over ruled they tend to divert from the pressure. These children feel unwanted from the family and they end up in substance abuse activities. Too much rules and command to children is not appropriate (Briere, 2011). This form of parenting may also be the cause of child abuse in severe cases. The other theory explaining substance abuse by adolescence is social influence. During adolescence age there is a lot of peer influence where all the teenagers want to do as the rest without questioning the impacts it may have to their health. From the peers many are introduced to substance abuse and form gangs where they take the substances together. Statistical results Substance and children abuse has increased in numbers for the last decade registered numbers. This is because, the numbers has increased from one million children abuse to 1.5 million while more than 30million children use illicit substances (Rohsenow, Corbett & Devine, 2011). The main cause of the raise in substance abuse is the increment in marijuana users who have increased with the highest value. The research is very relevant in that many children mostly the high school students are frequently caught in drug cases. Under children abuse, there are also uncaring mothers who don’t care on the parenting of their children. Finally there are various views of the causes of child and substance abuse. However the main causes are related to issues of parenting standards. References Briere, J. N. (2011). Child abuse trauma: Theory and treatment of the lasting effects. Sage Publications, Inc. Chaffin, M., Kelleher, K., & Hollenberg, J. (2010). Onset of physical abuse and neglect: Psychiatric, substance abuse, and social risk factors from prospective community data. Child abuse & neglect, 20(3), 191-203. Dore, M. M., Doris, J. M., & Wright, P. (2009). Identifying substance abuse in maltreating families: A child welfare challenge. Child abuse & neglect, 19(5), 531-543 Hawkins, J. D., Lishner, D. M., Catalano Jr, R. F., & Howard, M. O. (2009). Childhood predictors of adolescent substance abuse: Toward an empirically grounded theory. Journal of Children in Contemporary Society, 18(1-2), 11-48. Rohsenow, D. J., Corbett, R., & Devine, D. (2011). Molested as children: A hidden contribution to substance abuse? Journal of substance abuse treatment, 5(1), 13-18. .

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