Instructions and attach file answer the following questions
Instructions and attach file answer the following questions
Highlight the correct answer According to the Langbein article in the reading, which of the following is true about the enlightenment: Deterrence thinkers such as Beccaria were part of the enlightenment. There was a strong movement to abolish the death penalty during the enlightenment. The enlightenment thinkers moved away from the concept of rational choice, and thus, prison was rarely used by the end of the enlightenment and beginning of the industrial revolution. Two of the above All of the above Question 2 According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, which of the following is true about judicial reprieve? It is a relatively modern strategy developed in the past 30 years. Offenders given a judicial reprieve were often given a full pardon at the end of their reprieve. It was given when the judge decided that the offender needed a sentence of retribution. Two of the above All of the Above Question 3 According to the Langbein article in your reading, which of the following were true: The Death Penalty was used much more in Europe and specifically in England in the early 1800s than it had been in the 1500s and 1600s. The punishment of transportation developed out of the galley sentence in the late 1500s and early 1600s. When the British lost the revolutionary war, they shifted many of their offenders from Australian penal colonies to the use of transportation. Two of the Above All of the Above Question 4 According to the course lectures, which of the following is true about probation? John Augustus is given credit for establishing Probation. Probation was originally conceived to be more cost effective so that probation officers were overseeing a greater number of offenders on probation. There are more people in prison in the United States than on Probation. Two of the Above None of the Above Question 5 According to the course lectures, which of the following theories support using more alternative sanctions? Differential Association Theory Labeling Theory Social control Theory Two of the Above All of the Above Flag question: Question 6 According to the class lectures, which of the following is true with regard to Day Reporting Centers They are a type of residential intermediate sanction They are less restrictive than basic probation A group of offenders that they oversee are those on probation that need enhanced treatment Two of the Above All of the Above Flag question: Question 7 Question 71 pts According to the article by Hollin, a primitive method used to determine guilt or innocence was called: Trial by Jury Trial by Ordeal Trial by Combat Trial by Fire None of the Above Question 8 Which of the following are true with regard to halfway houses according to the Barton and Hanser text? Halfway houses are a type of Non-Community Based Residential Intermediate Sanction Most of those placed into halfway houses are offenders who have been serving probation and need transition from probation to full release. Halfway houses are another name for restitution centers Two of the Above None of the Above Question 9 which of the following ideas would Cesare Beccaria been in agreement with? People think rationally People seek pleasure and avoid penalties / pain The penalties for crime should outweigh the pleasure gained from the crime Two of the Above All of the Above Question 10 According to the class lectures, which of the following is true with regard to home detention? A rationale of this penalty is that it can allow offenders to still work or receive rehabilitation while serving their sentences. It is commonly used in conjunction with electronic monitoring. It can be used as a primary penalty or also as a way to transition offenders from prison to full release. Two of the Above All of the Above Question 11 According to the course lectures, which of the following were popular penalties during the dark and middle ages? Banishment Restorative Justice Halfway Houses Two of the Above None of the Above Question 12 According to the Kaeble and Apler article in the reading, which of the following is true? Probation use in the United States decreased between 2008 – 2018 Parole use decreased at a higher rate than did Probation Use in the U.S. between 2008-2018 The amount of people under community supervision as a whole increased from 2008-2018. Two of the Above None of the Above Question 13 Which of the following are true about Reentry Courts according to the Barton and Hanser textbook? They divert offenders to alternative sanctions before they are ever incarcerated. They attempt to ensure public safety while helping to integrate inmates back into society. They help prepare offenders for release from incarceration. Two of the Above All of the Above Question 14 According to the Barton and Hanser text, which of the following is true about the sanction of ISP? Its stands for Intermediate Supervised Probation It is a type of intermediate sanction It is a type of community-based residential intermediate sanction Two of the Above All of the Above Question 15 According to the course lectures, which of the following was true about the penalties in the dark and middle ages? They focused of efficiency. They were unethical by today’s standards They included the use of offenders as slaves and / or indentured servants Two of the Above All of the Above Question 16 According to the course lectures, which of the following support the use of diversion programs? The Labeling Effect The Criminogenic Effect Net Widening All of the Above None of the Above Question 17 which of the following is true about probation officers? A major criticism of probation is that probation officers do not oversee enough offenders on probation. Probation officers typically oversee offenders who have recently been released from prison. Probation officers usually have to create Pre-Sentence Investigation Reports Two of the Above None of the Above Question 18 which of the following is a type of shock incarceration? Probation House Arrest Boot Camps Chain Gangs DARE Programs Question 19 According to the Langbein article in your reading, which of the following were rationales behind using the galley sentence? The need use offenders as a labor resource to help power boats. The potential that the galley sentence would be feared and deter offenders. A belief that the galley sentence was more humane than probation. Two of the Above None of the Above Flag question: Question 20 Question 201 pts According to the Langbein, which of the following can be used to describe punishment towards the end of middle-ages (in the 1500s)? The punishments of death and physical punishment were common during the late middle ages. Prisoners did not have that as many rights in the middle-ages as they do today in the United States. The church was a key factor in the use of prison as a penal sanction Two of the Above All of the Above Question 21 According to the Langbein article, which of the following represented similarities between the European Galley and Prison Schemes and the English system of Transportation? They both were used for offenders who would have been subjected to blood sanctions. They were both used for serious crimes, but, not the most serious crimes. They both sought to take offenders out of general society and to reduce the use of blood sanctions. Two of the Above All of the Above Question 22 According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, which of the following are examples of diversion programs? Drug Courts Clerk of Courts Appeals Courts Two of the Above None of the Above Question 23 According to the course lectures, which of the following contributed to the expanded use of prison across the West? The abolition of slavery and development of ethics The popularity of deterrence The movement towards efficient and cost-effective penalties Two of the Above All of the Above Question 24 According to the course lectures, which of the following is true about a revocation hearing brought against an offender accused of violating probation? The hearing can only be brought when the person on probation has committed a crime while on probation. To revoke one’s probation, it must be found beyond a reasonable doubt that the offender has violated the terms of his or her probation. The revocation hearing has four distinct phases. Two of the above None of the Above Question 25 According to the course lectures, which of the following is true about parole? It began in the 1960s in the United States It is used more in Florida than the majority of states. It has been criticized as overlooking the victim of the crime Two of the Above All of the Above Question 26 which of the following are people who might serve on a parole board? Judges Criminologists Psychiatrists Two of the Above None of the Above Question 27 According to the Barton and Hanser text, which of the following is true about Home Detention? It is another name for House Arrest It is sometimes used in conjunction with electronic monitoring Critics have contended that it reduces the net-widening effect. Two of the Above None of the Above Question 28 According to the Barton and Hanser textbook and the course lectures, which of the following is true about fines and restitution. Both fines and restitution are often used in conjunction with probation. Fines are popular in European countries, particularly in England. Fines have been criticized for causing poor offenders to be more likely to violate the terms of their probations. Two of the Above All of the Above Question 29 According to the article by Hollin, which of the following best describes specific deterrence? The experience of the punishment deters the individual experiencing it from committing further crimes. Increases in the likelihood of being apprehended or the perception of being apprehended for crime will lead to decreases in the likelihood to commit crime. Seeing others being punished will deter those viewing it from committing crime. The quicker punishment occurs in a jurisdiction, the less crime that will eventually occur. None of the Above Question 30 According to the Barton and Hanser text, which of the following are true about study release programs? They are not as common as work release programs. They are sometimes used in conjunction with work release programs. They have been used for various levels of education, from GEDs to college. Two of the Above None of the Above Question 31 Which of the following according to the Barton and Hanser text is the process whereby the oldest child in the family is legally given responsibility for caring for the younger child or children in the family. Foster care Child Indemnification Child Parentification Child Custody Parens Patraie Flag question: Question 32 Question 321 pts According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, which of the following is an early process in England where a prisoner that was given sanctuary at a church could confess to his or her crimes and negotiate the ability to leave the country and live elsewhere without punishment. Penal Colony Transportation Abjuration Mercy Rule None of the Above Question 33 According to the Barton and Hanser text, which of the following are true about boot camps They are a type of Community-Based Residential Intermediate Sanction They are a type of shock incarceration They have been used for adults as well as juveniles Two of the Above All of the Above Question 34 According to the course lectures, which of the following were historical systems that had an impact on the development of prisons? The Auburn Prison System The Chattanooga Prison System The Pennsylvania Prison System Two of the Above All of the Above Question 35 Which of the following is true about our criminal justice system according to the course lectures? About half of the cases today in the court system end in a plea-bargain There are over four million people under some sort of community supervision in the United States. Those placed on probation have the same constitutional protections of law-abiding citizens not under correctional supervision. All of the Above None of the Above Question 36 which of the following is true about residential treatment centers? Offenders do not live at these centers, they simply visit these centers during the day. They are similar to diversion courts, although these centers typically deal with more serious offenders than diversion courts They are only used for adults, not juveniles. Two of the Above None of the Above Question 37 which of the following is true about Differential Association Theory? It was developed in part as a critique of biological theories of crime such as that put forth by Lombroso. It contends that criminal behavior is learned in a way similar to how any legal behavior is learned. Crime differences across people of people living in the same environment can be explained by the different priorities, frequencies, and priorities placed on criminals and non-criminals that one is around. All of the above None of the Above Question 38 which of the following had an impact on the development of parole? John Augustus Cesare Beccaria Zebulon Brockway Cesare Lombroso Jeremy Bentham Question 39 According to the course lectures, which of the following ideas support using parole? Determinate Sentencing Indeterminate Sentencing Institutionalization Effect Two of the Above All of the Above Question 40 Which of the following is a term used for penalties that do not involve the use of incarceration? Determinate Sentencing Deterrence Alternative Sanctions Parens Patriae Audible Question 41 According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, a positive punishment occurs when a negative stimuli or unpleasant stimuli (such as electronic monitoring) is removed when a desired behavior (such as perfect attendance at rehabilitation) occurs. True False Question 42 According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, a bachelor’s degree is typically required to become either a parole officer or a probation officer. True False Question 43 According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, restitution centers are typically reserved for the most violent offenders. True False Question 44 According to the course lectures, prison was used in the early and Middle Ages more than it is used today. True False Question 45 According to the course lectures, a problem caused by net-widening is that it could increase those impacted by the criminogenic effect. True False Question 46 According to the course lectures, the state of Florida still allows for parole of some offenders who were convicted and sentenced in the past. True False Question 47 According to the course lectures, an advantage of Day Reporting Centers is that they are less costly than probation sentences. True False Question 48 According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, about one-third (33%) of those on parole today are women. True False Question 49 According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, failure of a parent to assure that a child with special needs receives the correct services is an example of educational neglect. True False Question 50 According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, probation is considered to be less severe than other alternative sanctions such as intensive supervision, house arrest, and electronic monitoring. True False Question 51 According to the course lectures, a criticism of our reliance on deterrence is that many offenders are either mentally ill and / or under the influence of substances when they commit crime. True False Question 52 According to the course lectures, probation officers make the final decision about whether an offender has violated his or her probation during a revocation hearing. True False Question 53 According to the course lectures, restitution is different than fines because restitution requires that the offender pay money to the victim or victim’s family. True False Question 54 According to the course lectures there has been much research that supports policies that increase penalties with the assumption that those increases in penalties will result in increases in people perceptions that penalties for crime are increasing. True False Question 55 According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, probation officers have to answer more to judges than do parole officers. True False Question 56 The article by Andrew Von Hirsch in the Barton and Hanser textbook focuses on the ethical concerns with placing offenders into prison. True False Question 57 According to the course lectures, the classical school and deterrence theorists support parole as a key part of their ideology. True False Question 58 According to the course lectures, the public safety approach has the primary goal of retribution. True False Question 59 According to the course lectures, incapacitation is one of the most simple criminal justice policies to empirically test. True False Question 60 According to the course lectures, the majority of research focusing on coerced treatment has found that it does not significantly improve the recidivism of recidivism over other approaches. True False Question 61 Please Match the type of Deterrence with the Correct Description. People Will see that others are being punished for a crime will be deterred from committing crime. Punishments that occur soon after the crime will be a more effective deterrent than those that take place long after the crime A greater likelihood of penalties for committing crime will result in deterrence Elevating the punishment level for crime of involvement will result in deterrence A criminal who experiences punishment for crime will be deterred from committing crime in the future Certainty of Punishment Severity of Punishment Swiftness of Punishment General Deterrence Specific Deterrence Question 62 Please Match the term that is related to Parole with its Correct Description. Discretionary Parole Mandatory Parole Decides whether an inmate should be allowed out on parole None of the above Occurs when April he has to serve his Entire sentence or longer Occurs when a Parolee’s good time is equal to the remaining days left on his sentence Occurs when parolee will requests parole before his or her mandatory parole review date Expiratory Parole Parole Board Clemency Hearing Question 63 Please match the correct term that is related to an impact of Incarceration with its correct description. Increasing ask that are considered crimes bring more people into the criminal justice Inmates who have limited sources in prison have difficulty simulating back into society upon release When punishment results and the offender committing more crime rather than having the desired deterrent effect A strategy meant to reduce the negative affects of the criminal justice system on offenders The reaction of society to offenders can impact the offenders self-concept Net Widening Labeling Criminogenic Effect Institutionalization Diversion Question 64 Please match the influential name in the history of corrections to the specific policy / strategy that this person impacted. John Augustus Probation None of the above Deterrence Indeterminate sentencing Parole Zebulon Brockway Cesare Beccaria Alexander Maconochie Travis Hirschi Question 65 Please Match the Goal of Punishment with its Correct Description. Attempts to keep the founder from committing crime again by keeping he or she away from society Attempts to keep the offender from committing a crime again by changing his or her character The need for penalties to provide a feeling of justice to the victim and society Attempts to balance the correct penalty for the victim, offender, and society Attempts to keep the offender from committing a crime again through the threat of penalties Retribution Rehabilitation Deterrence Incapacitation Restorative Justice Question 66 Allowed for orphaned children to be adopted by middle and upper class families. Reduced the responsibility of the child for being wayward Locked up juveniles and with adults with homeless adults, those with mental illness, etc Allows parents to take a break from their children while they get their lives together A type of wildness camp Please Match the Term Surrounding Juvenile Justice with its Correct Description Almshouses Florida Youth Ranch Respite Care Parens Patriae Child-Savers Question 67 Please Match the Theory with its correct description. People use rationalization to allow themselves to justify crime The reaction to crime by society can lead to more crime Bonding to conventional society is key to refraining from crime None of the above Crime is learned just has all other behavior is learned Labeling Theory Social Control Theory Differential Association Theory Neutralization Theory Differential Opportunity Theory Question 68 Please Match the type of Intermediate Sanction with its correct description Home Detention Working in the community as a punishment for crime Helps offenders transition from incarceration to society Allows offenders to stay at the residence while serving And example is boot camp Is typically part of house arrest Halfway house Shock Incarceration Community Service Electronic Monitoring
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