Paper Critique an empirical article that uses one of the research designs. Note: APA Style500 words

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Paper Critique an empirical article that uses one of the research designs.


  1. APA Style
  2. 500 words

Paper Critique an empirical article that uses one of the research designs. Note: APA Style500 words
WALIA journal 30(S3 ): 43-51, 2014 Available online at m ISSN 1026-38 61 © 2014 WA LIA 43 I mpact of the effectiveness o f organizational c ommu nication on job satisfactio n throug h job motivation of employees o f Shiraz Telec o mmunication Company Ali D arijani 1 , Has san Soltani 2,* , Mo hammad Ali Pourroo staei 3 1 Assista nt p ro fesso r of Payam-E-Noor Unive rsity , T eh ran , Iran 2 Departme nt of Mana ge men t, Marvdasht Bra nch, Islami c Az ad Unive rsity , Ma rv da sh t, Iran 3 D epa rtme nt o f Ma nagement, Kerman B ra nch, Islami c Az ad Unive rsity , Kerman, Ira n Abs trac t: This researc h is a so litary and causal (subsequenc e) k ind determining the effectiveness o f organizational co mmunic atio n on job satisfac tion through job mo tiv ation o f em ployees o f Shiraz Telecommunic atio n Com p any. The study populatio n consisted of all emplo yees of Shiraz Teleco mmunication Co mpany amo ng whic h 248 ar e selected by simple random sampling for the researc h . Data co llectio n was done thro ugh three questionnaires of effectiveness of organiz ational communication, jo b satisfactio n and job mo tivatio n which was dist ribut ed and co llec ted among the members of research populatio n after the confirmation of reliability and validity. Data collected from the questionnaires w ere analy zed using SPSS an d LISREL so ftware and employing descriptive and illative statistic al methods. R esearc h findings indicate tha t in Shiraz T elecommunication C ompany , effectivenes s of organizational communicatio n on job satisfac tion, j ob motiv atio n on jo b satisfactio n, effectiveness o f organizational co mmunic atio n on job motivation and job mo tivation acts as a mediato r in the direc tion o f the impact on jo b satisfactio n and organizational co mmunic atio n. Key words: E ffectiveness of o rg an iz atio na l co mmun ication ; Job motiva tion ; Job satisfaction ; Emp lo yees o f Sh iraz Tele co mmun ication Company 1. Intro duc tion *In a work gr oup or organization , communication thro ugh co ntrollin g perfor mance method r es ults emp lo yees’ motiv atio n. Also, for many o f the emp lo yees, grou p is the mos t imp ortan t so urce of so cial communication (recipro city or interactio n) an d thereby they reduce their stress deals. Finally , the factor of communication can p rov ide information for in dividuals and gr oup s who need them for decision-mak in g and can exchange data thro ugh various perfo rmance methods and then evalu ate and choos e the best method or so lu tion (Scott and Mitchell, 19 76). Wor kplaces are of great impo rtance in es tablis hing and maintaining so cial inter action wit h others in employ ees ’ s atis faction. H owev er, this fa ct is mor e evident for employees who tend to interactio ns mo re than o thers . Ind iv idu als who n eed interactio ns pr efer jobs in which they can in teract with others an d s uppo rt them. Regard less of the emp lo yees need fo r inter action, when wo rking gr oup s ar e fo rmed o n the bas is of s imilar s kill lev els , job satis factio n and pr oductiv ity incr eas es . In oth er researches is kn own that job satis factio n is un der effect of p opularity among colleagues and als o gr ou p co rr elatio n (Alizadeh, 200 8). Ho wever, organiz atio n upgrades and pr omotions can have benefits for the individual and the * Corr espo ndin g Au thor. or ganiz ation, but becaus e of v ariou s factor s such a s gender, education, ty pe o f perso nal needs , sk ills, and so only a few of the s taff wor king in the organizat ion can reach higher p ositio ns (Jansr ad, 1991 ). But the impor tant po in t is that o rganizations are obliged t o impro ve an d d evelo p employees’ career path and satis factio n, and ultimately satisfy employ ees’ w ho ar e s eeking p rofes sion al dev elopment. F or this pu rpose, determining an d imp lementing transparent an d objective criteria for employees’ pro motio n wil l be a ver y usefu l way (Ts hyk vr v, 1 994). When r eas ons or lack of job satisfaction of emp lo yees ar e specified , mor e fu ndamental effor ts can be d esign ed to imp rov e work in g co ndition s and satis factio n. B ecause when a per son is s atis fied of his job uncons cious ly will be mo re respo nsible and carefu l, ther efore will be hap pier. Thus , in this study, is d is cus sed about the imp act o f organization al co mmunication effectivenes s on job s atis faction and job motivation med iated by job motivation. 2. Res ear ch litera ture 2.1. Communica tions C ommunication means to convey. If there was no data or in tellectu al co nnectio n, commu nications wou ld n ot exist. A Speaker who is not listen ed to o r a writer , whose word s ar e no t r ead , has n ot co mmunicated. In or der to make a s ucces sful co nnectio n, n ot o nly meaning has to be transfer red, Da rijan i et a l / WALIA, 30(S 3) 2014, P ag es: 43- 51 44 bu t must also be u nder stoo d. So commun icatio n is tran smitting and unders tanding of the concept. Perfect co mmu nication – if s uch a thing is po ss ible – exis ts when thou ght or idea is r eceived exactly wit h the same pur pos e that has been submitted (A arabi et al., 20 00). 2.2. Impo rtance of c ommunications Co mmunication is on e of the fun damental facto rs of organization identity an d as Fifner in dicates is the heart and es sence o f management which p lanning activities, or ganiz ing, co ord in atin g, leading and co ntrol is managed thro ugh that. Communicatio n is exchange of the “mess age” fr om on e p ers on to an other , thro ugh an intermediary and a s ens e of awarenes s and und ers tanding amo ng the human elements. Jo hn Cu tter con sists communication pr ocess of three elements: s end er – mess age – receiv er. Fro m his p oint of v iew, when there is no co mmunication in an o rganization it is no t defined as an o rganization no matter how is defined. Co mmu nications in or gan iz atio ns ar e the so urce of po wer an d mean s fo r ap ply in g the optimal legal and ad minis tr ativ e actions that ar e in the o rganization al hier ar chy . Co mmunication as a “mean s” for applying po wer and ways in o rganization networ ks and related laws is a path to flo w. In organiz atio n, po wer flo ws throu gh co mmu nication an d applies thro ugh op por tun ities pro vided by the flo w of co mmunication, then dev elops and finally jo in s in or gan iz atio nal con text an d is pr eserv ed (F akhimi, 200 0). Effective communication is impor tant for man agers for two reas ons . Fir st, the communication is a p roces s by which man agers achiev e p lanning stru cture, leaders hip and con tr ol. Second , the co mmunication is an activ ity in which man agers sp end much of their time. Manager s rarely think or plan alo ne. As a matter of fact, management time is mainly time for face to face, mail or telephone co mmunications with individu als, peers, s uper visors , su ppliers or cu stomer s. While n ot dealing with others in p ers on or by telep hone, man agers may write or r ead a memo , repor t or letter (Stoner and Fr eeman, 1992 ). 2.3. Effe ctiv enes s in inter per sonal co mmunic atio ns Inter per son al communicatio ns, like o ther fo rms of hu man behavior can be con sider ed in two extr emes , highly effective and highly ineffective. Mos tly, no hu man interactio n can be fully s ucces sfu l or entir ely disappointing. It may impro ve or maybe wor sens. In o ther wo rds , the concept of the r elativ ity of human behav io r and the r elations hip between people even tu ally and co mp letely is do min ant. Effective interp ers onal communicatio ns includ e two fundamental aspects. Fir st, pragmatic d imension where effectiv e communication and success in achieving goals and desires of the recipient or s en der of the mess age is n oticed. The s eco nd o ne is satis factio n d imension which the effectiv eness of co mmunicative actio n is related to pleasur e and joy which is conn ected to pr actitio ner s. If those inv ol ved in the communication pr ocess , en jo y the interp ers onal co mmu nication by the satisfaction cr iteria can be imp lied effective actio n. It s hould be co nsidered that accor ding this classification these as pects sho uld not be as su med separ ated fro m each other and does not act s eparately . Often people’s satis factio n of communicativ e action is contin gen t on ho w much they have reached their go als and ho w much they ar e distan t from them. On the other han d, we can s ay mos t of the time achieving goals and sens e of s ucces s based on the level o f satisfactio n has been r esu med of the in teraction (Farhangi, 2001 ). 2.3. Impo rtanc e of o rga niz atio n Communica tions C ommunication is vital fo r organization man agers and their jo b. Kanter (1 977) fou nd that man agers s pend a large amoun t of their time on co mmunication s. This commu nication is usu ally es tablished by holdin g coun cil. Manager s s hou ld resp ond to mes sages by phone and e-mail. In sho rt, it is said that manager s’ main tas k is communication (Par saeey an an d Araabi, 1 997). C ommunication is a very impor tant s kill and the need for efficient management; thr ough which man agers establish and maintain inter actions between emp lo yees to per fo rm necessary d aily tas ks pr operly ( Abbas poor and Baro otian, 2 010). Or ganization Co mmu nication is a co or din atio n of relatio nships that exist between organization bodie s . In today’s o rganizations , info rmation sho uld be tran sfer red fas ter than an y o ther time (Mos habaki, 20 01). Co mmu nication is neces sar y to advance the go als of the in stitutio n, because this task, r elate s other management task s to gether. C ommunication als o links ins titutio n to the extern al enviro nment. It is throu gh exchange o f in fo rmation that man agers ar e info rmed o f customer requirements, availability of materials , the demands of s har eho ld ers , go ver nmen t regulations , and the reaction of society . It is throu gh co mmu nication that each organization becomes an o pen s ystem, which has r ecipr ocity with its envir onmen t (Kuntz et al., 19 80). C ommunication is o ne of the mo st impor tant elements of the managemen t pro cess. Effectiv e and pr oper commu nication in o rganization has always been es sential part of s ucces s in managemen t. E xperience has pro ved that, if the or gan iz atio n is no t in a pr oper communication , circu lation of affaires will be distur bed and mes sed . Co ord in atio n , plan ning, organization , co ntrol and other fu nctions in the abs en ce of an effective communicatio n sys tem ar e not r ealized an d the po ssibility of man aging or ganiz ations will no t be p rov id ed (Mir abi, 2001 ). E ffective communicatio n is inevitable and bind ing activ ity of individu al, gr oup, organization an d commun ity in all hu man so cieties. In this stud y , four k ey indicato rs o f effective co mmunication s uch as : empathy, op enness , s uppo rt and s ocial sk ills an d its r elation to indicato rs of jo b satisfaction an d job Da rijan i et a l / WALIA, 30(S 3) 2014, P ag es: 43- 51 45 motivation are d is cus sed. In to day ’s o rganizations , due to changes in employees ‘ needs , env ir onment should be p rov id ed that is stimulating and satisfyi ng much more than ju st p hys io lo gical an d s afety needs (Hers ey and Blanchard, 198 9). 2.4. Jo b s atis fa ction F is her and Han na (1 939) con sider job satis factio n as a ps ychological factor an d defin e i t as a k ind of emotio nal adjus tment to the job requirements, meaning that if the job p rov id es idea l co nditio ns, the per son will be s atis fied with the j o b. But if the jo b d oes n ot p rov id e satisfaction an d jo y, the perso n starts r epr oaching job an d will po ss ibly leav e the job. 2.5. Type s of job s atis fa ction Gins ber g and colleagu es , who have co nsidered the various p ers pectiv es of jo b satisfaction, refer to two ty pes o f job s atis factio n: In ner s atis faction is o btained from two s our ces . The firs t is feeling of jo y that a man obtain s only by engagemen t an d activities . The secon d is p leas ure of o bserving the pr ogr es s or doing s ome social respo nsibilities and con vey in g the appear ance of abilities and individual inter ests. Outer satisfaction which is co nnected to the co ndition s of emp lo yment and wor k o ut and is per manently changin g an d ev olving. Extern al factor s can be pointed as co ndition s of job, wages and bonu ses , type o f wor k and r elations between wor ker s an d employers (Zirak Abd arloo , 20 12). Achiev ing Ind iv id ual jo b satisfaction depen ds on sever al factors that all together lead to the des ir ed result. Job satisfaction is a k ey factor in many of individual behavior featur es and affects organizati on functions ; job s atisfaction incr eases pro ductivity and co mmitment to the or ganization, ens ur es the perso n’s p hys ical and mental health and also incr eases a per so n’s hop e. Some o f the cons equences of lack of job satisfaction include performance, absen teeism, tran spo rtatio n, delay for job and deser tion (Gholizdeh et al., 2 011). Although job diss atis faction, pr imarily r educes efficiency and incr eases cos ts in the wo rkp lace, bu t when co ntinu e s it will weak en ind iv idu als’ co mmitmen t to the valu es, nor ms, and s ocial trus t an d goals ( Maeedfa r an d Zahani, 2 005). Un dou btedly manager s mus t be sensitiv e about emp lo yees’ diss atis factio n. The impor tance o f job satisfaction and co nsequences of job dissatis factio n in the wo rkp lace and co nsequently in s ociety caus e the special attentio n of director s and o fficer s of each comp any to that. Man agers can find a s olutio n to pr oblems by measur in g job s atis factio n and identifying emp lo yees’ majo r is su es. In 19 35 fo r the firs t time the con cept of job satisfaction was expr es sed by Hop ok who fou nd that job s atis faction of employees is a co mbination of phys ical and p sychological sens e of their wor kplace (Tis sa et al, 2007). Jo b satisfa ction is fo rmed by individu als’ cogn itive and emo tion al reaction s and their attitudes toward their job and wor k (G olpar var and Nadi, 201 0). Job satis factio n i s a po sitive or pleasant emo tion al s tate res ulting fr o m the appr aisal of practitioner o f the job o r job exper iences (Weiss, 200 2, quoted by R avari, 20 12) an d the facto rs that p lay an imp ortan t role in job satis factio n can be named as follows: 1 -Seek in g challenging jobs: Jobs that are challenging and p rov id e the op por tu nity for individuals to express their abilities and sk ills a nd freely sho w their successful achievements, 2 – Same rights and benefits : fair rights and benefits r es ult to satisfaction . Individuals exp ect that type of job, level o f skills , payment s ys tem and pr omotion policy to be fair and unequivo cal. 3 – Pro per wor king co ndition s: the pu rpo se of wor king conditio ns is wor kplace. 4 – Hav in g goo d co lleagues: Having good co lleagu es incr ease job s atis faction, 5 – The pro por tion o f people with jobs: If the jo b i s co mmens urate with the per so n, he will succeed and ther efor e satisfied (A sghar i, 200 7). Ov er the y ear s, var io us theo ries have been paid attention directly or ind ir ectly to the s ubject of job satis factio n, Herz ber g’s two -facto r theor y is o ne o f thes e theor ies, Freder ick Her zberg’s p res en ted the theo ry between 19 50 an d 1960 . The bas ic framewor k o f the two-factor theory was fo unded, bas ed on inter views o f 200 acco untants and engineers in the Peters bur g. Herzberg stated that man has two different kind s of needs which are es sen tially ind ependent of each other and each k in d influen ce behav io r differ ently. He r ealized that when p eop le feel diss atis faction o f their jo b, the diss atis faction is r elated to the en viron ment in which they wor k. When peo ple feel satis factio n of their wor k, the satisfaction is co ncern ed the wor k itself. Her zberg’s described health facto rs fir st kind of needs s ince these need s describe the man’s enviro nmen t and their main function is to pr ev ent job dis satisfaction, he call ed the second kind motiv atio nal s in ce these needs pr ovide motivation for better perfor mance. Health factor s include: o rganization policies and man agement, s upervision , wor king co ndition s, the interr elations hips of people, mo ney , pos ition and secu rity . Health factor s do not influ ence work er’s pr odu ctiv ity an d efficien cy; they o nly preven t was t e resu lting fr om negligence in the p erfor mance of the wor ker . Motivation al factor s include: business su ccess , gr atitud e for do in g s o, and effo rtfu l jo b, incr easing res pon sibility, growth and pro sperity. These factor s have a pos itive impact on job satis factio n and often incr ease the ov erall efficie ncy of the man (Her sey and Blan chard, 197 2). Althou gh Her zberg’s model in relatio n to job motivation is of gr eat fame and widely accepted by man agers , but was qu ickly criticized and objected, Fo r example, the two-factor theor y o f motivation, i s just a piece o f con tent, an d fails to pr es ent the f ull express io n o f motiv atio nal is sues in or ganizations (Bro omand , 20 06). Ano ther defect o f the theor y is Da rijan i et a l / WALIA, 30(S 3) 2014, P ag es: 43- 51 46 that it does n ot take individual differ ences in to co nsideration. Moreover, this theo ry do es n ot s peci fy the r elatio nship between motivation and job satis factio n, in fact in this theo ry job satis facti o n has been cons id er ed generally an d the s ituation al variables hav e no t been co nsidered and as a reply t o Her zberg’s ques tion s p eop le tend to give socially desirable ans wer s (As ghari, 2007 ). In to day’s competitive wo rld, the man ager can no t only r ely on technical skills to s ucceed. He mu st also have the s kills and abilities o f human relatio ns . Amon g all managemen t tas ks , managing human elements is the main task , since all other tas ks depend on this. Amon g the behav io ral s cien ces , perhaps on e of the mos t impor tant an d boister ous co ncepts is job s atis faction which on o ne han d has derived theoretical and fu ndamental effor ts and on the other, has been the mo st impo rtant at all level s of man agement and human r es our ces. This impor tance is because of its r ole on impr ovement and develop ment o f or gan iz atio n and wor kfor ce health an d o n the o ther hand, it is d ue to the fact that j ob satis factio n in addition to numerou s definition s an d co nceptio n, it has been the structu re o f the co nflu ence of many s cien tific fields s uch as ed ucation , ps ychology, management, so ciology, econo mics and even p olitics . Accor din g to many exper ts , among all concepts that exper ts in or gan iz atio nal behav io r, management and or gan iz atio nal and ind ustrial p sychologists have stud ied about in var io us o rganization al op por tun ities, job satisfaction is the mos t impor ta nt research ar ea (Abbasi zadeh and Raees i, 200 8). 2.6. Motiva tion Motivation was taken fro m the L atin ter m “mov e” for the fir st time meaning changing place fr om one po sition to another. Mo tivation is the reaso n for a particular behav io r. In other wo rds , an individu al wou ld n ot have a par ticu lar behav io r if ther e was n ot an y incentiv e or stimu lu s. Human motiv atio n, whether co nscio us or uncons ciou s, is due to his needs . So it can be s aid that the definition of motivation is : motiv atio n or need is the intern al state and a deficit or depr ivation that stimu late people to p erfor m as some activities (Sey yed Javadian, 2007 ). The pu rpo se o f job mo tivation is factors , co nditio ns an d circu mstances that have dr awn, and co ntin ue to give the des ir ed behav io r ass ociated with its jo b pos itions (Moghad ami p oor , 20 03). Job Motiv atio n is a pr ocess by which affect hu man behav io r and preser ve his inter es t to achieve the go als of the organization (Safavi, 19 98). Job motivation is on e of the too ls that can be u sed to get clos e or achiev e go als. For manager s, there are various optio ns to motiv ate employ ees: but Motivation canno t be load ed o n each o f the emp lo yees after a test and then us e its ad van tages . Motivation is somehow flo ating and changing every moment du e to in div id uals’ active des ir es , tas tes a nd char acter is tics which influ ence them. Managers are faced with many p roblems to motivate employ ees . Fo r example, choo sing a metho d o f motiv atio n is a difficu lt management (Afje, 20 06). In the p res ent study, jo b mo tivation has been co nsidered bas ed on Hackman and Oldham mo del. Richard Hack man an d Greg Oldham have d evelo ped the mos t comprehensive job p rofile mo del, un der stand ing the concept of char acteristics of job motivational, they hav e deter min ed 5 key featur es that can be u sed to describe the p otential motivations job. Thes e features ar e: 1-Variety of s kills: it refer s to the extent to whi ch a job requires employees to us e their s kills and abilities . 2-Task id entity: it r efers to whether the job has definite star t and en d, and that u pon the co mpletio n of certain parts of this jo bs. 3-The impo rtance of the tas k: The extent to which a job has an impact on other people in side and outs ide the organization . 4-indep end ence: r efer s to the indepen dence of the job and that ho w much employ ees have freedo m an d con tr ol in deter min ing wor k sched ule, decision or deter min atio n of a wo rk tool. Given the imp ortan ce of the r ole and resp ons ibilities o f organiz atio ns the impo rtance of or ganiz ation co mmunication s will be d oubled. Man agement o f an y o rganization should be noted that achieving o rganizational goals at differ ent le vels mus t be effective. This is po ssible when the co mmunication an d the communication paths are pr operly d esign ed and clearly d efined. Lack of pr oper conn ection can result idleness of us eful capacity o f the units an d manager s’ u nawarenes s of un its abilities . Organization s will be su ccess fu l i n so cieties as a so urce of p rod uction an d ser vices an d co mmunity d evelo pmen t if pay s pecial attention to hu man resou rces as the mo st impo rtant capital and factor s in each o rganization. Human r eso urce is a co mplex factor that has differen t motiv atio ns and attitudes. Sometimes manager s’ and employ ees ’ inability in co mmunicating pro per ly with other co lleagu es in wo rkp lace or their n egative attitu des an d lack of motivation cau se inability to d o their task s des ir ably an d ultimately we ar e faced with declin in g pr oductiv ity an d jo b satis factio n of emp lo yees. Re sea rch hypothes is 1 . Organization Commu nications has a significance effect o n the job satis factio n of emp lo yees of Shiraz Telecommun icatio n Comp any. 2 . There is a s ignificance r elations hip between job motivation and job s atis factio n of emp lo yees of Shir az Teleco mmunication C ompan y. 3 . There is a sign ifican t relations hip between or ganiz ational commun icatio n and mo tivation of emp lo yees. 4 . Organization Co mmu nication has s ignificant influ ence on the job satisfaction of employees thro ugh job mo tivation o f Shir az Telecommunication Co mpany . D arija ni et al / WA LIA, 30(S3) 2014, Pa ges: 43-51 47 Fig . 1: Co nceptual mo del of research Fig. 2: Causal Mo del of Research 3. Re sea rch me tho d Present r esearch fr om pur pos e point o f view is practical and fr om perfor mance p oint of view is solidar ity and caus al (subsequen ce). Stud y popu lation o f this res earch; cons is t of all emp lo ye es of Shir az teleco mmunication Comp any . Accord in g statis tics o btained from Shir az teleco mmu nication, number o f employees of the compan y is 7 00 member s. Samp le s iz e, is calculated 24 8 member s bas ed on the kr ejeci an d Morgan formu la. 3 type of ques tio nnair es has been used to gather in for matio n needed for the s tu dy o f “the effectivenes s of organization al commun icatio n” (Nan chy an and other s, 20 00)which is a 25 item qu estionnair e, Minn eso ta Job Satisfaction Ques tion naire (1 967) which has been prepar ed an d compiled at the State Univer sity by Weiss Davis, George E nglan d and Lafco sit. Jo b mo tivation questionnair e of Hackman and Oldham (19 76) also was used. The s cor es o f the reliability o f the questio nnair e were calcu lated as follows: Questio nnair e o f effectiv eness of or gan iz atio n commun icatio n: 0 .8 4 and effectivenes s comp onen t: commun icatio n, 0.84; feedback , 0 .8 3; mu ltiple commun icatio n channels , 0 .8 3. Ques tio nnair e of jo b motiv atio n: 0.82 an d mo tivation co mponents: impor tance o f task , 0.81; v ar iety of task, 0.8; identity of tas k, 0 .8 2; feed b ack, 0 .8 1 and indepen den ce, 0.81. Ques tio nnair e of jo b s atis factio n: 0.79 an d d imension s o f jo b s atis factio n: inner s atis faction, 0 .7 8; o uter s atis factio n, 7 9; o ver all s atis faction, 79. Data collected for this res earch were an alyzed u sing SPSS s oftware an d LISREL . Statistical methods u sed in this study are criteria and methods of s tatis tical cor relation ass umptions to as sess the v alid ity of hyp othes is . Rese arc h hypo the sis te st Satisfaction has a s ignificant imp act on the effectivenes s of commu nication Due to the effect factor of β =0 .2 2 and critical v alue = 3.27= t v alue (-1 .9 6 < t< 1.96) r epo rted in Table 1, which higher than 1 .9 6, p red ictive v ariabl e effective commun icatio ns can influence and ex plain the s atis faction criterion v ariables. A s a r es ult, by D arija ni et al / WA LIA, 30(S3) 2014, Pa ges: 43-51 48 ens uring 0 .9 5, this hy pothesis will be confir med an d con flictin g claims rejected. Ta ble 1: the impac t o f communic ation effec tiv eness variable o n satisfaction c riterio n variable D irec t way Effect factor (β) Number of signific ance (t-value) Result Effec tiveness of c ommunication → satisfactio n 0.22 3.27 Hy pothesis confirmation The se cond hypo the sis Jo b mo tivation has a s ignificant impact on jo b satisfaction. T able 2: The impac t o f job mo tivation variable o n job satis fac tion v ariable D irec t way Effect factor (β) Number of signific ance (t -value) Result Jo b motivation → job satisfac tion 0.61 8.44 Hy pothesis confirmation Due to the effect factor of β =0 .6 1 and critical value = 8.44 = t value (-1.96> t> 1.96) r ep orted in Table 2, which is higher than 1 .9 6, predictiv e var iable job motiv atio n can in fluence and ex plain j o b satisfaction variables. A s a result, by en sur ing 0. 95, this hy pothes is will be co nfir med and con flictin g claims rejected. Third hy pothesis Effectiv eness of commu nication has a significant impact o n jo b motiv atio n Ta ble 3: Impac t o f effec tiveness of c ommunication variable o n job motivation variable D irec t way Effect factor (β ) Number of signific ance (t-value) Result effectiveness o f co mmunic ation → jo b motivation 0. 34 4.61 Hy po thesis co nfirmation Due to the effect factor of β =0 .3 4 and critical value = 4.61 = t value (-1.96> t> 1.96) r ep orted in Table 3, which is higher than 1 .9 6, predictiv e var iable effectiv eness o f co mmunication can influen ce and exp lain job mo tivation variables . A s a res ult, by ensu ring 0.95, this hyp othes is will be con firmed and conflicting claims rejected. Four th hypothes is Effectiv eness of communicatio n with mediatio n o f jo b mo tivation has a s ignificant impact on jo b s atisfaction Table 4 : illustration o f the effec tiv eness of comm unicatio n variables with mediation of job motiv atio n on job satisfaction Accor din g Table 4, effectivenes s of commun icatio n has a s ignificant p ositiv e impact o n jo b mo tivation (β=.34 and t coefficient=4 .6 1) an d j o b mo tivation has impact o n job s atis faction and exp lain it . (β =0.61 and t coefficient=8 .4 4). So effectiv eness of communication variable, exp lain s jo b s atisfaction cr iter ion var iable with med iation of jo b motivation var iable. As a result, the o riginal hypo thesis based on mediation of job mo tivation in the way of impact of effectivenes s of commun icatio n on jo b satisfaction will be ap pro ved and con flictin g claims will be rejected. Goodness o f fitting tes ts When a mod el has been su ppor ted theor etically and app rop riately, n ext s tage is to investigate the p rop ortion of this mod el and the d ata collected by the r esear cher. In this model, Roo t Mean Squ ar e E rr or of Appr oximation (R MSEA) which is an index bas ed on a decen tr alized parameter and is less affected by s ample size and could measur e lack o f f it for each degree of fr eed om equ al to 0.02 14Less than 0 .0 ind icates a go od fit of the mod el, if less than 0.1 ind icates a good fit of the mo del, then the mo del i s a resu lt Ind ir ect effect Hy po thesis confirmation E ffect factor (β) 0.34 * 0 .61 Effec tiveness of c ommunication → Job mo tivatio n → Job satisfac tion N umber o f significanc e (t-value) 4.61 8.44 D arija ni et al / WA LIA, 30(S3) 2014, Pa ges: 43-51 49 goo d fit. Other ind icators are based on the model f it ind ices : RMR, GFI, IFI, CFI, N FI has been meas ured (Table 4 and Table 5) sho ws a go od fit of the mo del . Str uctur al e quation The r es ear ch mo del was fitted and the results ar e sho wn in F ig. 3 an d Fig. 4. 4. Disc uss io n and Co nclusion E ffectivenes s of or ganization C ommunication s with effect coefficient of 0.22 has an impact o n jo b s atis faction and as sumption of impact of thes e v ariables on job satisfaction , by ensu ring 0.95 is v erified. job motivation with effect coefficient o f 0.61 has impact on jo b s atis factio n and ass umptio n of impact o f thes e var iables o n job s atis faction, by ensu ring 0.95 is v erified. E ffectivenes s of o rganization communication with effect coefficient of 0.34 has imp act on jo b mo tivation and as sump tion of impact of thes e v ariables on job satisfaction , by ensu ring 0.95 is v erified. A bout the ro le o f job motivation means, effectivenes s o f o rganization C ommunication s with co efficient o f 0 .3 4 has impact o n jo b mo tivation an d job mo tivation with coefficient of 0 .6 1 has impact on job satis factio n and the main hypo thesis bas ed on the role of job motiv atio n mediator have been confir med in the co urs e of an impact o n the effectiv eness o f communication . Goo dnes s of fitting tes ts , v erify research con cep tual metho d bas ed o n impact of effectivenes s of Or gan iz atio n C ompany and its v ariables on jo b mo tivation and the impact of this v ar iable and compo nen ts o n jo b satisfaction . The r esu lts obtained abov e sho w that effectivenes s of or ganiz ation commun icatio n thr ough in creas in g job mo tivation will enhance jo b s atisfaction. Therefor e, the d ir ecto rs an d officers of the company can incr ease job satisfaction of their employees thr ough enhancin g emp lo yees’ jo b mo tivation and or gan iz atio n commu nication pr oper managemen t. Managemen t, enviro nmental facto rs, s ocial- p sychological factors , pers onal factor s and cultur a l facto rs con firmed pr ofit-tak in g man power p rod uctivity o f Aghajar i oil and gas fir ms. Tab le 5 : T he ultim ate model fit indexes o f researc h Statistic indicato rs title Original mo del Acc eptable range Test result χ2 / df 1.92 χ 2 / df <2 Model confirmatio n P-v alue 0.198 P >0.05 Model confirmatio n RMSEA 0.0214 RMSEA <0.09 Model confirmatio n R MR 0.0012 R MR<0.09 Model confirmatio n GF I 0.9 GF I >0.9 Model confirmatio n AGFI 0.93 AGFI >0.9 Model confirmatio n CF I 0.95 CFI>0.9 Model confirmatio n RF I 0.91 RFI >0.9 Model confirmatio n NF I 0.94 NFI >0.9 Model confirmatio n NNFI 0.92 NNFI >0.9 Model confirmatio n Fig. 3: fit in a standard estimate D arija ni et al / WA LIA, 30(S3) 2014, Pa ges: 43-51 50 Fig . 4: model in a significant number 5. Sugge stions A cco rding firs t hyp othes is bas ed on effectiven es s o f organization co mmu nications on jo b s atis faction, it is s uggested that director s and o fficer s of Shir az Telecommu nication Company, p rov id e neces sary arr angemen ts to imp rov e r elations between man agers an d employees an d employees amo ng themselves and in creas e their job s atisfaction. A cco rding s econd hy pothesis bas ed on impact of job motivation on job satisfactio n, it is sugges ted that by giv ing p rop er tas k to each individual an d p rov id in g ind ependen ce of employees , they can increase their jo b motiv atio n and job s atis faction. A cco rding third hyp othes is based o n impact of effectivenes s of o rganization co mmunications o n job motivation, it is sugges ted that directo rs of Shiraz Telecommunicatio n Company can r einfo rce employees’ job mo tivation thr ough communicatio n s tr ategies amon g employees an d establishin g pr oper r elatio nship between managers and emplo yees. A cco rding four th hypothesis based on impact of effectivenes s of o rganization co mmunications o n job s atisfaction with mediatio n o f job motivation, it is s uggested that director s and d ecis io n makers of Shiraz Telecommunicatio n Company can imp rov e employee’s job motivation and jo b s atis factio n thr ough commun ication strategies and imp rov in g the enviro nmen t of organization , creating s ens e of ind ependen ce, creatin g s en se of impor tance of their tas ks and s ens e o f satisfaction du e to the tas ks they are ass igned to. Refere nces A likhani, H (19 95). 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