Please read and complete the attached file very carefully. Please pay attention to detail and please make sure to answer each and every question thoroughly and free of errors and plagiarism. Also make

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Please read and complete the attached file very carefully. Please pay attention to detail and please make sure to answer each and every question thoroughly and free of errors and plagiarism. Also make sure to answer between 200 and 350 words for each with good references. IT IS IMPORTANT THAT WORK IS DONE CORRECTLY AND ON TIME.

Please read and complete the attached file very carefully. Please pay attention to detail and please make sure to answer each and every question thoroughly and free of errors and plagiarism. Also make
1.This week we will discuss prominent figures in the field of psychology and their contributions.  First, click this link and read or listen to this resource on the History of Psychology. Next select one individual mentioned in the article and write an essay reflecting upon that person’s life and contributions to the field of psychology. Describe what that person did, the approximate time that this person lived, what makes their contribution important, and criticisms of their work or theoretical position. Be sure to include scholarly references and citations in your response. 2.First take a look at the 3 Case Studies below.    Study 1, concerns Watson’s famous Little Albert.  Although we all know the story of Little Albert, we may not have read Watson and Rayner’s original 1920’s study.  Take into consideration the context and spirit of the times or Zeitgeist, if you will, when analyzing this study and the next one. http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Watson/emotion.htm Study 2 tells the story of Wendell Johnson, or more specifically, Mary Tudor’s study of children in an orphanage in Iowa. It’s called the Monster Study for a reason as you will see.  The Monster Study Study 3 concerns Seligman and Maier’s (1967) Learned Helplessness study. Again, it helps to read these original studies when possible, so we can form our own judgments. http://psych.hanover.edu/classes/learning/papers/seligman%20maier%201967.pdf Your assignment:   Please read over these studies and select one to analyze. You will need to first review APA’s  Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.  You can find the link and other very useful information in the Psychology Learning Tools under Course Content.  Go to the First Module (Intro to PSYC @ UMUC, and click on Ethical Guidelines and Considerations).  You will find ethical considerations to current events and historical studies and understand more fully the reason why we need the ethical principles.   Next, in your analysis, give some background information and then tell us which of the General Principles and/ or which Ethical Standard was violated, and explain why.  Do you think that the study you choose would be approved by an IRB today?  Why do you think the study was allowed or tolerated at the time?   3. Case 1: A certain psychologist was looking for the cause of failure among college students. She took a group of former students who had flunked out and a group of students who had received good grades. She gave both groups a self-esteem test and found that the group that flunked out scored lower on the test than did the group that received good grades. She concluded that low self-esteem is one of the causes of college failure and suggested further that a person with low self-esteem probably expects to fail and exhibits defeatist behavior in college, which eventually leads to failure. What was the independent variable? What was the dependent variable and how is it measured? Discuss the study’s design. What kind of design was used? Was this design appropriate? Why or why not?  Was the experimenter justified in her conclusions? Why or why not? Case 2: In an effort to determine the effects of the drug chlorpromazine on the performance of schizophrenics, two clinical investigators randomly selected 20 acute schizophrenics from a mental hospital population. The patients were asked to order several stimuli along some dimension, such as ordering eight stimuli by weight. There were several tasks of this sort. All subjects first performed the tasks after being injected with a saline solution (Placebo) and then performed the tasks again several hours later after being injected with chlorpromazine. The results indicated that fewer errors were made in the chlorpromazine treatment, which suggested to the investigators that the drug facilitates more adequate cognitive functioning in this type of patient.   What do you think the hypothesis might be for this study? Is the hypothesis you selected directional or nondirectional? Why did you select a directional or nondirectional hypothesis?  Next, discuss this study’s design. What was the design? Was it appropriate? Why or why not?  What was the purpose of random selection in this study?  What is the independent variable? What is the dependent variable and how is it measured?  Are there possible confounds in this study? If so, how would you control for them?    Case 3: Recently, an association that represented police in New Jersey complained that the incidence of cancer was unusually high among police officers who used radar guns in tracking the speed of drivers. The association brought suit against the state, claiming that those officers who used these radar guns had an incidence of cancer 18 percent higher than a comparable group of government workers from the state park service who were randomly selected for comparison purposes. The comparison sample and the police officers were matched on educational level, age, gender, and years of service. The sample was large: 283 police officers and 231 park workers. Was the case justified? Why or why not? (Be sure to support your answer with reference to the strengths and weaknesses of the design, and consider possible confounds.) What kind of study is this? What are the problems associated with this kind of study? How would you improve the study?  4. Your roommate Gretchen has had chronic pain issues since she broke her back in a car accident about a year ago. You know that she finished her prescription pain killers at least three months ago, but you’re suspicious she’s been taking something else. Quite frequently you find Gretchen passed out in her room, and when she is awake, she doesn’t seem to care about much. She stopped going to class and says her pain is way better than it was a few months ago. You got really worried last week when you found a syringe laying on the bathroom floor and then found out from your landlord that Gretchen never paid her share of the rent. What drug is Gretchen on? Choose at least 4 of the following questions to discuss: What drug has the individual in this case been using? What led you to believe this?  2. What are the subjective effects of the drug (i.e., what has a person reported feeling after using the drug)? What receptors, transporters, or neurotransmitters could be involved? How does the drug affect these receptors, transporters, or neurotransmitters? Provide at least one relevant website concerning the drug in question. Is this drug addictive? What are the consequences of continued use of this drug? 6. Putting yourself in the role of a professional counselor or biological psychologist, what advice do you have for concerned family or friends of someone using this drug? 5. Please go to this study.http://www.wadsworth.com/psychology_d/templates/student_resources/0155060678_rathus/ps/ps18.html Your assignment: 1. Briefly describe the problem (or research question), the hypothesis, procedure (participants, methods) and results of the study. 2. Do you see any potential problems with this study, ie., methodological issues, ethical concerns, etc.? 3. Do you agree with the authors’ conclusions? Are there other factors we should consider? 4. In your opinion, could this study be repeated today and with the same results? Why or why not? 5. From what you know of social psychology or other pertinent psychology courses you have taken, why might this study have been important? 6. Gender Reassignment: The Case of a Boy Who Became a Girl  Read the attached case. For the discussion, focus on these questions: Gender Reassignment 1.Some people have argued that the Johns Hopkins psychologist used this opportunity as an experiment to testhis nurture theory of gender identity. What are the expected results of this experiment, assuming that thenurture theory is valid?2. According to the nurture theory, predict the gender identity Bruce would express if he were not subjected togender re-assignment surgery and raised as a boy? 3.In light of this newer research on gender identity, what advice would you give parents who are consideringgender re-assignment of a male infant who lacks a penis, but has functional testicles? Since this is the professional cluster, also comment on the therapist behavior.

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