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Burnett, K. & Read, G. (2016) Aboriginal History: A Reader, 2nd edition. Don Mills: Oxford University Press.

Dickason, O. P. & Newbigging, W. (2019) Indigenous Peoples within Canada: A Concise History, (4th edition) Don Mills: Oxford University Press.Part A

Throughout this unit, we have discussed the fur trade and a number of results of this trade system.  Additionally, we discussed the disappearance of different groups of people during this time period.  For this reflection point, please discuss the relationships that were established between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples (particularly surrounding the HBC and Indigenous peoples).  To contribute to this discussion, please also discuss the contributions put forward by Indigenous peoples to the success of this trading system.

Part B

throughout this unit, we have discussed early contact wars.  We have reviewed the formation of alliances between Indigenous nations as well as between Indigenous nations and European nations.  Additionally, we discussed wars that included Indigenous and European nations fighting as allies against other nations.  In this reflection point, please discuss the ways in which these relationships impacted the positions of both Europeans and Indigenous peoples at this time.

Provide me with plagrisum report Please do not take Ai Help Give seperate reference for each section Write max 5 to 7 lines for each part Burnett, K. & Read, G. (2016) Aboriginal History: A Reade
Unit 4 The Complexity of Relationships French Expansion After winning a series of wars on the European continent, King Louis XIV turned his attention to the problems of France’s colonies overseas. In 1663 he made New France a province of France and appointed a governor and an intendant (business manager) to oversee provincial affairs. Troops were sent to subdue the Haudenosaunee. Then the king and his advisor Jean-Baptiste Colbert focused on building the colony. Large pieces of land along the St. Lawrence were granted by the king to seigneurs (landlords), who rented portions out to habitants (settlers). By 1672 more than 6,000 French lived in New France. King Louis did not consider the First Nations’ claims to the land. The fur trade revived and westward expansion increased. French explorers and traders pushed beyond the Great Lakes. To the southwest Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet explored the Mississippi River, traveling as far south as the Arkansas River. Robert Cavelier, the Sieur de la Salle, opened the Ohio and Illinois country and then went on to find the mouth of the Mississippi River in 1682. New posts were built as far west as Fort Frontenac (Kingston) and present-day Niagara on Lake Ontario. By 1700 the French had built a mighty inland empire, stretching from present-day Quebec to the Gulf of Mexico. The development of relationships played an important role in this expansion. Cartier’s voyages and travels up the St. Lawrence to Hochelaga are traced in your readings, along with an outline of his eventual kidnapping of Donnacona and his two sons. Samuel de Champlain chose a different strategy for approaching First Nations peoples through the development of a trading relationship with the Innu. As a result of this alliance, the Innu were able to control the early fur trade, and Tadoussac became the centre of the Gulf of St. Lawrence trade. The relationships that existed were not without problems, and the friction had ramifications for both Indigenous peoples and the French. The friction ranged from confrontations involving death to more minor misunderstandings that were viewed as insults because either particular protocol was not followed or expectations were unclear. Once the French had moved further inland, formed a new trading partnership with the Huron, and established Montreal, the importance of the Innu and Tadoussac diminished. As the French expanded their control in North America, they looked at New France and Acadia not simply as trading outposts, but as colonies. That viewpoint was reinforced by France’s belief that they owned these areas by right of discovery and that the Indigenous populations were, at best, French subjects. This, of course, allowed the French to discount any semblance of Indigenous sovereignty. Disruption to pre-established relationships By that time, the Ouendat (Huron) Nation along the St. Lawrence River had already developed a trade system. They knew that the more furs they could provide to the Europeans, the more hatchets, iron fishhooks, and other goods they would receive in exchange. So the Ouendat expanded their trade system and acted as trade agents between the Europeans and the First Nations living farther west. With the centre of the St. Lawrence trade being established at Montreal, the Huron and French entered into an alliance that would have lasting impacts in the region. Prior to the arrival of the French, the Huron had been allied with the Montagnais, Algonquins, and Mi’kmaq against the Five Nations. The French alliance with the Huron made them immediate enemies with the Five Nations. In addition to a trading relationship, Champlain insisted that the relationship between the French and the Huron also be one of conversion, making it clear that without missionary involvement, there would be no trade. The influence of the missionaries went far beyond attempts at conversion and, in fact, resulted in the deaths of many Huron; it is believed the missionaries unknowingly spread European diseases, such as smallpox, among the Huron. Realizing the importance of access to European trade goods, the Five Nations established trading relationships with both the Dutch and English and, for a time, played the two European nations off against other. In the 1640s, the Five Nations—especially the Mohawk and Seneca—began blockades of the St. Lawrence, stopping the Huron and French from moving furs. As the situation intensified, the Iroquois moved from attacking trade convoys to attacking settlements. As a result of these intensified attacks and the devastation from disease, the Huron dispersed from their territory and joined other nations that accepted them. English Expansion The impact of the dispersal of the Huron included a change in geographic concentration of the fur trade and a greater influence of the British. This shift in geography was to more northern and westerly locals, paving the way for the Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) to rise to prominence. The HBC realized that an alliance with the Cree was essential to success of the trade, so they made efforts to cultivate a relationship. The French also saw opportunities in the fur trade in the West, so they made efforts to establish good relationships with the Cree and other groups in the West. As a result, the various indigenous nations became very good at taking advantage of European interest in alliance and friendship. Effects of Fur Trade Christianization At the same time that the fur trade was getting underway, Christian missionaries were also seeking good relations with Indigenous peoples. The missionaries’ goal was not commercial; instead, they wished to convert Indigenous peoples to Christianity. Early on, the fur trade aided missionaries in developing the good relations needed to teach Indigenous peoples about Christian beliefs. This was because the Ouendat (Huron) accepted Jesuit priests into their communities. This helped to ease trade relations with Europeans. European traders were less likely to mistreat Ouendat fur traders at market if they were accompanied by a Jesuit priest. These early relationships between missionaries and Aboriginal peoples opened the door to their Christianization. Over time, great numbers of Indigenous peoples converted to Christianity and its belief system, in place of the traditional beliefs their peoples had developed and held for thousands of years. Intermarriage The cooperative nature of the fur trade took European traders deep into the communities of Indigenous peoples. One result of this was the marriage of European men and Indigenous women. When a European man wanted to court and marry an Indigenous woman, he had to follow the customs of her people’s culture. These marriages, in time, led to the development of a new nation—the Métis. However, it would not be until 1982 that the Métis would be formally recognized by the government of Canada as an Indigenous people. Armed Conflict The fur trade caused conflict among some First Nations to protect their own trade interests. For example, the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois Confederacy) attacked and nearly wiped out the Ouendat (Huron) in the 1640s. The surviving Ouendat people dispersed into other regions and took refuge with other First Nations. Later, some First Nations fought in European conflicts. European powers vied for control of the lands that would become Canada. French and English sought Aboriginal allies, because they were regarded as strong and capable warriors. Not all First Nations were drawn into these conflicts. Those who chose to fight with a European nation did so to protect their lands. First Nations tended to side with the European power that would sustain the fur trade, but not settle land for agriculture. European agricultural settlements encroached on traditional Indigenous lands. Over Trapping Another effect of the fur trade industry was the over trapping of animals—some near to extinction. For centuries, Indigenous peoples had trapped and hunted animals sustainably. But the fur trade became such an important part of the Indigenous and European economies that the animals were over trapped in a non-sustainable way. When the animal populations fell in a particular region, there were too few animals to sustain trade, let alone the basic food needs of Indigenous peoples. This often led to Indigenous peoples becoming dependent on Europeans to help them with basic survival. For the Métis and plains First Nations, over trapping was not so much a problem as over hunting of buffalo. There was a huge European industrial demand for buffalo hides in the 19th century. Métis and Plains First Nations hunted buffalo to serve this market. Buffalo were also hunted for sport and food in the United States. The herds of migrating buffalo north and south of the border were nearly wiped out. This forced the Métis and plains First Nations to abandon their traditional ways of life and find new means of survival. Disease One of the most devastating effects of contact and the development of the fur trade between Indigenous peoples and Europeans was epidemic infectious disease. Europeans carried with them diseases to which Indigenous peoples had little or no natural immunity. These diseases were transmitted to Aboriginal populations through fur trading posts. Smallpox, influenza, measles, and other diseases sickened and killed tens of thousands of Indigenous peoples. For example, between one-third and one-half of all Ouendat (Huron) people died of disease in the 1600s. Other examples include epidemics throughout the 1700s in the western interior, in which half of the Dene Suliné (Chipewyan) First Nation was killed and the entire Michele First Nation was wiped out. Epidemics occurred farther west towards the Pacific coast through the 1800s. The Inuit were also not immune, with disease being a suspected contributor to the disappearance of the Mackenzie Inuit as well. Expansion of European Society By the 18th century, the fur trade was extended into the prairies. Eventually the North West Company (NWC) established a fur trade post at Fort Gibraltar at the forks of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers in what is now Winnipeg. The French voyageurs of the North West Company, who manned the big canoes, began to marry Indigenous women and live year round in the area. The children of these marriages (who would later be referred to as either Bois Brules or Métis) learned from their Indigenous families to hunt the buffalo and how to prepare pemmican, the staple food of the fur trade. Their European fathers taught them the European farming style, and how to build and use the big ox-driven carts they utilized to carry large loads of pemmican from the hunt to their homes. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, there were several thousand Métis, most of them around present-day southern Manitoba. Eventually, these Métis people would develop a sense of nationhood based on their distinct culture and their economic independence based on their primary occupation – the pemmican trade. The North West Company eventually became a major force in the fur trade between the 1780s to 1821. Managed primarily by Highland Scots who migrated to Montréal after 1760, or came as Loyalists escaping the American Revolution, it also drew heavily on Canadian labour and experience. The name first described Montréal traders who in 1776 pooled resources to reduce competition among themselves and to resist inland advances of the Hudson’s Bay Company. The NWC and the Hudson’s Bay Company became bitter rivals and a number of confrontations ensued. For instance, During 1803 to 1806, the Nor’Westers maintained a base in HBC territory on James Bay, and although this enterprise proved unprofitable, rivalry intensified elsewhere. Costly clashes at the Red River Colony, Fort William and at the Grand Rapids of the Saskatchewan River. This rivalry impaired the abilities and profit of both companies that by 1820, strong forces were building towards a resolution of the conflict. In 1821, both companies merged into one entity – called the Hudson’s Bay Company. The HBC after 1821, as a monopoly, enjoyed a great profits throughout what is now Canada. By 1870 the HBC’s vast territory in the West was transferred to Canada, and what had been a trickle of settlers coming from Ontario became a flood. As settlement spread north and west, the HBC and rival free traders intensified the northward push of the trade, and eventually established enduring trading contacts with the Inuit. Fur trade and the Inuit The fur trade lasted much longer for Inuit in the Canadian Arctic than it had in any other region of Canada. For Inuit, the trade continued well into the 20th century. The fur trade affected Inuit culture. It brought them European tools with which they conducted their hunts—guns and motorboats, for example. Inuit also adopted many other European goods into their way of life such as store-bought clothing and food. In addition, Christian missionaries had followed close behind the European traders, converting almost all Inuit to Christianity by 1940. Despite the changes that came with the fur trade and European contact, the traditional Inuit way of life—semi-nomadic living in hunting and trapping camps—remained intact. This way of life continued for a long time after contact because the Canadian government had had little interest in developing the far north for economic or military purposes. Once the government changed its policy on those fronts, it set up centralized living areas scattered throughout the Arctic. The government encouraged Inuit to live in those centres. As a result, the Inuit semi-nomadic way of life was virtually gone by the 1960s and 70s. Unit 5 Battles for Control The expansion of New France brought further conflict. The Haudenosaunee again unleashed their anger on the French settlers and in 1689 destroyed the village of Lachine, near Montreal. The Haudenosaunee also made an alliance with the British, who had taken New York and the Hudson Valley from the Dutch. Across North America, British and French interests were locked in a grim rivalry for the future of the continent. In 1668, French fur traders Médard Chouart des Groseilliers and Pierre-Esprit Radisson had led the British to the interior fur trade using the sea route to Hudson Bay, which Henry Hudson had sailed almost 60 years earlier. By 1670 the British Hudson’s Bay Company was established, and French fur traders began to feel the competition from this rival in the north. English and French fishermen clashed in the Newfoundland and Acadian fishing grounds which the British claimed. To the south, British colonists were trading in the vast territories west of the Appalachian Mountains, which the French considered their territory. Between 1689 and 1697, the rivalry between the British and French broke into open warfare both in Europe where it was called the War of the Grand Alliance and in North America where it was called King William’s War. In North America the French and their First Nations allies and the British and their allies the Haudenosaunee made raids into each other’s territory. The war extended from where these battles took place in the lands between New France and the British colonies of New England and New York right up to Hudson Bay, where the French and English fur traders fought for control. In 1701 the War of the Spanish Succession erupted in Europe. Called Queen Anne’s War in the colonies, it dragged on for a dozen years until France reached a compromise with Great Britain in 1713 and Austria in 1714. The French were allowed to place Philip d’Anjou, the grandson of King Louis XIV, on the Spanish throne in exchange for colonial territory. France gave up to Great Britain Acadia which was renamed Nova Scotia, or “New Scotland”, most of Newfoundland, and the Hudson Bay territory. The 1713 Treaty of Utrecht did not consider the land rights of the First Nations. The next 30 years were relatively peaceful until North America was dragged into the War of the Austrian Succession in 1744. This war was called King George’s War in North America. When it ended in 1748, Îsle Royale (Cape Breton) which had been captured by the British was returned to the French. In spite of all the bloodshed, France and Great Britain still had not settled their rivalry for supremacy in North America. With the threat of another war looming in 1755, the British deported the Acadians from Nova Scotia. The final struggle between the two countries took place during the Seven Years’ War from 1756 to 1763. In 1758 several French forts fell to the British. In 1759 the British led by General James Wolfe attacked the town of Quebec, the main French stronghold. In September the British won the battle on the Plains of Abraham and took Quebec; the next year the remaining French forces surrendered at Montreal. In 1763, New France was handed over to the British according to the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Outcomes of Conflicts The Iroquois War The Iroquois War was difficult for both sides and hard to stop because of the belief that warriors could not enter the afterlife until their death had been avenged. A key point raised in the chapter relates to the fighting techniques of the Mohawk, who used what have been termed guerrilla tactics. It was a strategy based on speed and surprise. The strategy was successful against the field warfare strategy of the French and English in which columns of men lined up and fought. The 1690s saw New France in state of siege as the Iroquois put continued pressure on the colony. After nearly a century of war in the region, the Iroquois replaced the Huron as the regional power and emerged with an expanded territory. But the result of the Iroquois’s actions had even deeper ramifications; although they had expanded their territory, the Iroquois suffered from severe population losses. By being a formidable enemy, they had unwittingly helped to unite the colonists of New France, facilitating the establishment of the English on Hudson Bay and forcing the French to expand west. The Fox War The Fox War resulted in more French success than they had experienced against the Iroquois. This was a result of two factors: the French adapted to forest-fighting techniques, and the nations of the pays d’en haut were not as stable in their alliances as the Iroquois. The Mi’kmaq War The Mi’kmaq War had several distinguishing characteristics. First, much of the war was fought at sea. Second, it is one of only a few examples of an indigenous group fighting on their own land for their own lands. As pointed out in the Dickason textbook, this war came to resemble the frontier wars in the United States. With the threat of another war looming in 1755, the British deported the Acadians from Nova Scotia. The final struggle between the two countries took place during the Seven Years’ War from 1756 to 1763. In 1758 several French forts fell to the British. In 1759 the British led by General James Wolfe attacked the town of Quebec, the main French stronghold. In September the British won the battle on the Plains of Abraham and took Quebec; the next year the remaining French forces surrendered at Montreal. In 1763, New France was handed over to the British according to the terms of the Treaty of Paris.
Provide me with plagrisum report Please do not take Ai Help Give seperate reference for each section Write max 5 to 7 lines for each part Burnett, K. & Read, G. (2016) Aboriginal History: A Reade
Unit 4 The Complexity of Relationships French Expansion After winning a series of wars on the European continent, King Louis XIV turned his attention to the problems of France’s colonies overseas. In 1663 he made New France a province of France and appointed a governor and an intendant (business manager) to oversee provincial affairs. Troops were sent to subdue the Haudenosaunee. Then the king and his advisor Jean-Baptiste Colbert focused on building the colony. Large pieces of land along the St. Lawrence were granted by the king to seigneurs (landlords), who rented portions out to habitants (settlers). By 1672 more than 6,000 French lived in New France. King Louis did not consider the First Nations’ claims to the land. The fur trade revived and westward expansion increased. French explorers and traders pushed beyond the Great Lakes. To the southwest Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet explored the Mississippi River, traveling as far south as the Arkansas River. Robert Cavelier, the Sieur de la Salle, opened the Ohio and Illinois country and then went on to find the mouth of the Mississippi River in 1682. New posts were built as far west as Fort Frontenac (Kingston) and present-day Niagara on Lake Ontario. By 1700 the French had built a mighty inland empire, stretching from present-day Quebec to the Gulf of Mexico. The development of relationships played an important role in this expansion. Cartier’s voyages and travels up the St. Lawrence to Hochelaga are traced in your readings, along with an outline of his eventual kidnapping of Donnacona and his two sons. Samuel de Champlain chose a different strategy for approaching First Nations peoples through the development of a trading relationship with the Innu. As a result of this alliance, the Innu were able to control the early fur trade, and Tadoussac became the centre of the Gulf of St. Lawrence trade. The relationships that existed were not without problems, and the friction had ramifications for both Indigenous peoples and the French. The friction ranged from confrontations involving death to more minor misunderstandings that were viewed as insults because either particular protocol was not followed or expectations were unclear. Once the French had moved further inland, formed a new trading partnership with the Huron, and established Montreal, the importance of the Innu and Tadoussac diminished. As the French expanded their control in North America, they looked at New France and Acadia not simply as trading outposts, but as colonies. That viewpoint was reinforced by France’s belief that they owned these areas by right of discovery and that the Indigenous populations were, at best, French subjects. This, of course, allowed the French to discount any semblance of Indigenous sovereignty. Disruption to pre-established relationships By that time, the Ouendat (Huron) Nation along the St. Lawrence River had already developed a trade system. They knew that the more furs they could provide to the Europeans, the more hatchets, iron fishhooks, and other goods they would receive in exchange. So the Ouendat expanded their trade system and acted as trade agents between the Europeans and the First Nations living farther west. With the centre of the St. Lawrence trade being established at Montreal, the Huron and French entered into an alliance that would have lasting impacts in the region. Prior to the arrival of the French, the Huron had been allied with the Montagnais, Algonquins, and Mi’kmaq against the Five Nations. The French alliance with the Huron made them immediate enemies with the Five Nations. In addition to a trading relationship, Champlain insisted that the relationship between the French and the Huron also be one of conversion, making it clear that without missionary involvement, there would be no trade. The influence of the missionaries went far beyond attempts at conversion and, in fact, resulted in the deaths of many Huron; it is believed the missionaries unknowingly spread European diseases, such as smallpox, among the Huron. Realizing the importance of access to European trade goods, the Five Nations established trading relationships with both the Dutch and English and, for a time, played the two European nations off against other. In the 1640s, the Five Nations—especially the Mohawk and Seneca—began blockades of the St. Lawrence, stopping the Huron and French from moving furs. As the situation intensified, the Iroquois moved from attacking trade convoys to attacking settlements. As a result of these intensified attacks and the devastation from disease, the Huron dispersed from their territory and joined other nations that accepted them. English Expansion The impact of the dispersal of the Huron included a change in geographic concentration of the fur trade and a greater influence of the British. This shift in geography was to more northern and westerly locals, paving the way for the Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) to rise to prominence. The HBC realized that an alliance with the Cree was essential to success of the trade, so they made efforts to cultivate a relationship. The French also saw opportunities in the fur trade in the West, so they made efforts to establish good relationships with the Cree and other groups in the West. As a result, the various indigenous nations became very good at taking advantage of European interest in alliance and friendship. Effects of Fur Trade Christianization At the same time that the fur trade was getting underway, Christian missionaries were also seeking good relations with Indigenous peoples. The missionaries’ goal was not commercial; instead, they wished to convert Indigenous peoples to Christianity. Early on, the fur trade aided missionaries in developing the good relations needed to teach Indigenous peoples about Christian beliefs. This was because the Ouendat (Huron) accepted Jesuit priests into their communities. This helped to ease trade relations with Europeans. European traders were less likely to mistreat Ouendat fur traders at market if they were accompanied by a Jesuit priest. These early relationships between missionaries and Aboriginal peoples opened the door to their Christianization. Over time, great numbers of Indigenous peoples converted to Christianity and its belief system, in place of the traditional beliefs their peoples had developed and held for thousands of years. Intermarriage The cooperative nature of the fur trade took European traders deep into the communities of Indigenous peoples. One result of this was the marriage of European men and Indigenous women. When a European man wanted to court and marry an Indigenous woman, he had to follow the customs of her people’s culture. These marriages, in time, led to the development of a new nation—the Métis. However, it would not be until 1982 that the Métis would be formally recognized by the government of Canada as an Indigenous people. Armed Conflict The fur trade caused conflict among some First Nations to protect their own trade interests. For example, the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois Confederacy) attacked and nearly wiped out the Ouendat (Huron) in the 1640s. The surviving Ouendat people dispersed into other regions and took refuge with other First Nations. Later, some First Nations fought in European conflicts. European powers vied for control of the lands that would become Canada. French and English sought Aboriginal allies, because they were regarded as strong and capable warriors. Not all First Nations were drawn into these conflicts. Those who chose to fight with a European nation did so to protect their lands. First Nations tended to side with the European power that would sustain the fur trade, but not settle land for agriculture. European agricultural settlements encroached on traditional Indigenous lands. Over Trapping Another effect of the fur trade industry was the over trapping of animals—some near to extinction. For centuries, Indigenous peoples had trapped and hunted animals sustainably. But the fur trade became such an important part of the Indigenous and European economies that the animals were over trapped in a non-sustainable way. When the animal populations fell in a particular region, there were too few animals to sustain trade, let alone the basic food needs of Indigenous peoples. This often led to Indigenous peoples becoming dependent on Europeans to help them with basic survival. For the Métis and plains First Nations, over trapping was not so much a problem as over hunting of buffalo. There was a huge European industrial demand for buffalo hides in the 19th century. Métis and Plains First Nations hunted buffalo to serve this market. Buffalo were also hunted for sport and food in the United States. The herds of migrating buffalo north and south of the border were nearly wiped out. This forced the Métis and plains First Nations to abandon their traditional ways of life and find new means of survival. Disease One of the most devastating effects of contact and the development of the fur trade between Indigenous peoples and Europeans was epidemic infectious disease. Europeans carried with them diseases to which Indigenous peoples had little or no natural immunity. These diseases were transmitted to Aboriginal populations through fur trading posts. Smallpox, influenza, measles, and other diseases sickened and killed tens of thousands of Indigenous peoples. For example, between one-third and one-half of all Ouendat (Huron) people died of disease in the 1600s. Other examples include epidemics throughout the 1700s in the western interior, in which half of the Dene Suliné (Chipewyan) First Nation was killed and the entire Michele First Nation was wiped out. Epidemics occurred farther west towards the Pacific coast through the 1800s. The Inuit were also not immune, with disease being a suspected contributor to the disappearance of the Mackenzie Inuit as well. Expansion of European Society By the 18th century, the fur trade was extended into the prairies. Eventually the North West Company (NWC) established a fur trade post at Fort Gibraltar at the forks of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers in what is now Winnipeg. The French voyageurs of the North West Company, who manned the big canoes, began to marry Indigenous women and live year round in the area. The children of these marriages (who would later be referred to as either Bois Brules or Métis) learned from their Indigenous families to hunt the buffalo and how to prepare pemmican, the staple food of the fur trade. Their European fathers taught them the European farming style, and how to build and use the big ox-driven carts they utilized to carry large loads of pemmican from the hunt to their homes. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, there were several thousand Métis, most of them around present-day southern Manitoba. Eventually, these Métis people would develop a sense of nationhood based on their distinct culture and their economic independence based on their primary occupation – the pemmican trade. The North West Company eventually became a major force in the fur trade between the 1780s to 1821. Managed primarily by Highland Scots who migrated to Montréal after 1760, or came as Loyalists escaping the American Revolution, it also drew heavily on Canadian labour and experience. The name first described Montréal traders who in 1776 pooled resources to reduce competition among themselves and to resist inland advances of the Hudson’s Bay Company. The NWC and the Hudson’s Bay Company became bitter rivals and a number of confrontations ensued. For instance, During 1803 to 1806, the Nor’Westers maintained a base in HBC territory on James Bay, and although this enterprise proved unprofitable, rivalry intensified elsewhere. Costly clashes at the Red River Colony, Fort William and at the Grand Rapids of the Saskatchewan River. This rivalry impaired the abilities and profit of both companies that by 1820, strong forces were building towards a resolution of the conflict. In 1821, both companies merged into one entity – called the Hudson’s Bay Company. The HBC after 1821, as a monopoly, enjoyed a great profits throughout what is now Canada. By 1870 the HBC’s vast territory in the West was transferred to Canada, and what had been a trickle of settlers coming from Ontario became a flood. As settlement spread north and west, the HBC and rival free traders intensified the northward push of the trade, and eventually established enduring trading contacts with the Inuit. Fur trade and the Inuit The fur trade lasted much longer for Inuit in the Canadian Arctic than it had in any other region of Canada. For Inuit, the trade continued well into the 20th century. The fur trade affected Inuit culture. It brought them European tools with which they conducted their hunts—guns and motorboats, for example. Inuit also adopted many other European goods into their way of life such as store-bought clothing and food. In addition, Christian missionaries had followed close behind the European traders, converting almost all Inuit to Christianity by 1940. Despite the changes that came with the fur trade and European contact, the traditional Inuit way of life—semi-nomadic living in hunting and trapping camps—remained intact. This way of life continued for a long time after contact because the Canadian government had had little interest in developing the far north for economic or military purposes. Once the government changed its policy on those fronts, it set up centralized living areas scattered throughout the Arctic. The government encouraged Inuit to live in those centres. As a result, the Inuit semi-nomadic way of life was virtually gone by the 1960s and 70s. Unit 5 Battles for Control The expansion of New France brought further conflict. The Haudenosaunee again unleashed their anger on the French settlers and in 1689 destroyed the village of Lachine, near Montreal. The Haudenosaunee also made an alliance with the British, who had taken New York and the Hudson Valley from the Dutch. Across North America, British and French interests were locked in a grim rivalry for the future of the continent. In 1668, French fur traders Médard Chouart des Groseilliers and Pierre-Esprit Radisson had led the British to the interior fur trade using the sea route to Hudson Bay, which Henry Hudson had sailed almost 60 years earlier. By 1670 the British Hudson’s Bay Company was established, and French fur traders began to feel the competition from this rival in the north. English and French fishermen clashed in the Newfoundland and Acadian fishing grounds which the British claimed. To the south, British colonists were trading in the vast territories west of the Appalachian Mountains, which the French considered their territory. Between 1689 and 1697, the rivalry between the British and French broke into open warfare both in Europe where it was called the War of the Grand Alliance and in North America where it was called King William’s War. In North America the French and their First Nations allies and the British and their allies the Haudenosaunee made raids into each other’s territory. The war extended from where these battles took place in the lands between New France and the British colonies of New England and New York right up to Hudson Bay, where the French and English fur traders fought for control. In 1701 the War of the Spanish Succession erupted in Europe. Called Queen Anne’s War in the colonies, it dragged on for a dozen years until France reached a compromise with Great Britain in 1713 and Austria in 1714. The French were allowed to place Philip d’Anjou, the grandson of King Louis XIV, on the Spanish throne in exchange for colonial territory. France gave up to Great Britain Acadia which was renamed Nova Scotia, or “New Scotland”, most of Newfoundland, and the Hudson Bay territory. The 1713 Treaty of Utrecht did not consider the land rights of the First Nations. The next 30 years were relatively peaceful until North America was dragged into the War of the Austrian Succession in 1744. This war was called King George’s War in North America. When it ended in 1748, Îsle Royale (Cape Breton) which had been captured by the British was returned to the French. In spite of all the bloodshed, France and Great Britain still had not settled their rivalry for supremacy in North America. With the threat of another war looming in 1755, the British deported the Acadians from Nova Scotia. The final struggle between the two countries took place during the Seven Years’ War from 1756 to 1763. In 1758 several French forts fell to the British. In 1759 the British led by General James Wolfe attacked the town of Quebec, the main French stronghold. In September the British won the battle on the Plains of Abraham and took Quebec; the next year the remaining French forces surrendered at Montreal. In 1763, New France was handed over to the British according to the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Outcomes of Conflicts The Iroquois War The Iroquois War was difficult for both sides and hard to stop because of the belief that warriors could not enter the afterlife until their death had been avenged. A key point raised in the chapter relates to the fighting techniques of the Mohawk, who used what have been termed guerrilla tactics. It was a strategy based on speed and surprise. The strategy was successful against the field warfare strategy of the French and English in which columns of men lined up and fought. The 1690s saw New France in state of siege as the Iroquois put continued pressure on the colony. After nearly a century of war in the region, the Iroquois replaced the Huron as the regional power and emerged with an expanded territory. But the result of the Iroquois’s actions had even deeper ramifications; although they had expanded their territory, the Iroquois suffered from severe population losses. By being a formidable enemy, they had unwittingly helped to unite the colonists of New France, facilitating the establishment of the English on Hudson Bay and forcing the French to expand west. The Fox War The Fox War resulted in more French success than they had experienced against the Iroquois. This was a result of two factors: the French adapted to forest-fighting techniques, and the nations of the pays d’en haut were not as stable in their alliances as the Iroquois. The Mi’kmaq War The Mi’kmaq War had several distinguishing characteristics. First, much of the war was fought at sea. Second, it is one of only a few examples of an indigenous group fighting on their own land for their own lands. As pointed out in the Dickason textbook, this war came to resemble the frontier wars in the United States. With the threat of another war looming in 1755, the British deported the Acadians from Nova Scotia. The final struggle between the two countries took place during the Seven Years’ War from 1756 to 1763. In 1758 several French forts fell to the British. In 1759 the British led by General James Wolfe attacked the town of Quebec, the main French stronghold. In September the British won the battle on the Plains of Abraham and took Quebec; the next year the remaining French forces surrendered at Montreal. In 1763, New France was handed over to the British according to the terms of the Treaty of Paris.

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