Research Proposal: Is Attention Deficit Disorder a Neuropsychological Problem?

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Research Proposal

A research proposal is a detailed plan for a specific study to be conducted at a future time. It is the document which potential researchers typically submit to an institutional review board (IRB) for ethical review and approval, and/or to funding agencies to secure financial support for a research effort. Because it is a plan for research which has not yet been conducted, the Methods section should be written in the future tense and should not contain any hypothetical results. The paper must address all of the components required in the Methods section of a research proposal. The following actions must be completed.

·         State the research question and/or hypothesis.

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·         Briefly compare the characteristics of the major research paradigms used in previous studies on the chosen topic. Introduce the specific approach (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods), research design, sampling strategy, data collection procedures, and data analysis techniques to be used in this study. Provide a short explanation as to why the selected procedures are more feasible than other alternatives for the research topic.

·         Describe any relevant variables, measures, and statistical tests.

·         Apply ethical principles and professional standards to the proposed psychological research. Provide an analysis of any ethical issues that may arise and explain how these issues will be resolved.

The following headings for the required sections and subsections must appear in the paper. In accordance with APA style, all references listed must be cited in the text of the paper.

·

Introduction

o    Introduce the research topic, explain why it is important, and present an appropriately and narrowly defined research question and/or hypothesis.

·

Literature Review

o    Evaluate the published research on the chosen topic including a minimum of three peer-reviewed articles. Summarize the current state of knowledge on the topic, making reference to the findings of previous research studies. Briefly mention the research methods that have previously been used to study the topic. State whether the proposed study is a replication of a previous study or a new approach employing methods that have not been used before. Be sure to properly cite all sources in APA style.

·

Methods

o

Design –

Create a feasible research design that incorporates appropriate methods to address the topic. Indicate whether the approach of the proposed study is qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods. Identify the specific research design, and indicate whether it is experimental or non-experimental. Evaluate the chosen design and explain why this design is feasible and appropriate for the topic and how it will provide the information needed to answer the research question. Cite sources on research methodology to support these choices. Include a minimum of two peer-reviewed sources.

o

Participants –

Identify and describe the sampling strategy to be used to recruit participants for the study. Estimate the number of participants needed, and explain why this sampling method is appropriate for the research design and approach.

o

Procedure/Measures –

Apply the scientific method by describing the steps to be taken in carrying out the study. Identify any test, questionnaire, or measurement instrument to be utilized. If an existing published instrument will be employed, briefly describe it and cite the source. If an original questionnaire, survey, or test will be created for the project, describe the types of information that will be collected with it and explain how the validity and reliability of the instrument will be established. If such an instrument will not be used, describe how the data will be collected for the study.

o

Data Analysis –

Describe the statistical techniques (if quantitative) or the analysis procedure (if qualitative) to be used to analyze the data. Cite at least one peer-reviewed source on the chosen analysis technique.

o

Ethical Issues –

Analyze the impact of ethical concerns on the proposed study, such as confidentiality, deception, informed consent, potential harm to participants, conflict of interest, IRB approval, etc. After analyzing the ethical issues that apply to the project, indicate what will be done to handle these concerns.

·

Conclusion

o    Briefly summarize the major points of the paper and reiterate why the proposed study is needed.

The Research Proposal Outline

·         Must be five to seven double-spaced pages (excluding title page and references page) in length and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..

·         Must include a title page with the following:

o    Title of paper

o    Student’s name

o    Course name and number

o    Instructor’s name

o    Date submitted

·         Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought and provide a thorough explanation of all required issues.

·         Must utilize a minimum of six peer-reviewed sources from the Ashford University Library.

·         Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

·         Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..

Additional Information:

The topic that I have chosen for my research proposal is

Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (

Predominately preschool age, but not limited to

)

The scientific question is posed:

Is Attention Deficit Disorder a Neuropsychological Problem?

My hypothesis:

ADHD is linked with heterogeneous neuropsychological properties

.

Research Study will be a

Qualitative approach

References to be used at the minimum (needs 6 in total, not including APA)

American Psychological Association. (2010). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct: Including 2010 amendments (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx

Brodsky, K., Willcutt, E.G., Davalos, D.B. and Ross. R. G. (2014). Neuropsychological

functioning in childhood-onset psychosis and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal Of Child Psychology And Psychiatry, And Allied Disciplines. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=1875c634-f9eb-4452-8317-6ab7277aa001%40sessionmgr4008

Macia, L. (2015). Using Clustering as a Tool: Mixed Methods in Qualitative Data Analysis. The

Qualitative report. 20 (7). Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/docview/1704359650?accountid=32521

Pauli-Pott, U., Dalir, S., Mingebach, T., Roller, A. and Becker, K (2014). Attention

deficit/hyperactivity and comorbid symptoms in preschoolers: Differences between subgroups in neuropsychological basic deficits. Child Neuropsychology http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09297049.2013.778236 Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu

Solovieva, Y. and Quintanar, L. (2015). Qualitative syndrome analysis by neuropsychological

assessment in preschoolers with attention deficit disorder

with hyperactivity. Psychology in Russia: State of Art. Retrieved from             https://doaj.org/article/9dc6e3d8522649a289417f1289d02027

Research Proposal: Is Attention Deficit Disorder a Neuropsychological Problem?
Research Methods Literature Review Tashara English PSY 635 Thomas MacCarty July 12, 2017 Research Designs Correlational The following article “Do higher dispositions for empathy predispose males towards careers in nursing? A descriptive correlational design”, (Penprase, Oakley, Ternes & Driscoll, 2015). Utilizes the correlational research design as well as quantitative methods emphasizing objectives, which rely on collected data mathematically. The article asks analyzes the male nurse disposition. As it focuses on empathetic implications and the levels of sympathy exhibited by male nurses. As these traits correlate to patients. The research design presented in the article uses empathizing and systemizing questionnaires used to research and measure the levels of empathy in nursing students. The correlational research design as well as the use of quantitative methods. Are used to identify empathetic traits in nursing students. The results of the research found that while women predominately express empathy more so than males. Males, especially in a nursing setting express sympathetic traits the same as women. Pretest-Posttest Control Group The following article, “The mechanisms of Effectiveness in Increasing Game Playing Skills in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a Pretest-Posttest Repeated Measures Randomized Control Group Design”, Quirmbach, Lincoln, Feinberg-Gizzo, Ingersoll, & Andrews, 2009). The focus of the research presented in this article highlights the pretest-posttest method in analyzing the effect of social story intervention techniques utilized to improve the game playing skills of autistic children. The article features the uses stories, socially developed for children diagnosed with the disorder. These stories are proven asset due to their visual quality and explicit information. The study utilizes methods observation, by the way of the Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule. The total score of participants correlates with the dependent variable which is social skills exhibited by the children. The outcome of the study reveals various recognizable knowledgeable abilities in children, regardless of standard or the directive intervention. Resulting in substantial progression of game play skills. The results of the study was compared autistic children in a control condition. Grounded Theory The article, “Qualitative sales research: an exposition of grounded theory” (Johnson, 2015). Explores the dynamic and complex array of issues affecting the functioning and positions of people in sales. These factors are listed to be individual, organizational and environmental. The article examines several types of data sources utilizing the ground theory method. Correlating to the fact that many studies relay on data that is obtained by interviewing participants. The study also makes use of quantitative research methods for deductive processing. That are consistent with theoretical based hypotheses, used for testing statistical analysis and variables that are numerically measured. Grounded theory is described in the article as the use of comparative analysis is compared to sales facts in which exhibit similar and different variables. The targeted population of the study are sales personnel including managers. The incorporated data collected in the study utilized a ground theory approach which generated results in all factors affecting the overall performance of salespeople. Exploratory The final article, “Developing a family risk assessment tool in adolescent offenders: An exploratory study”, (dos Santos, & Alberto, 2016). Use the exploratory design to explore criminal behavior in adolescents. By implementing and validating risk assessment tools for youth offenders and their parents. One tool utilized is a family risk assessment tool, involving structured interviews. The article expands on the various exhibited facets of criminal behavior and the integrated assessments from several informational sources. The exploratory study showcased in the article utilized effective analytical protocols to obtain information based on assessing family risk for adolescent delinquent behavior. One highlighted assessment integrated developmental strategies specified for assessing criminal behavior. Individual and contextual issues related to risk were also assessed. Such as management and responsiveness, parenting skills was also of highlighted importance. The study itself consisted of 130 juveniles who were male adolescent, detained in a criminal facility. Other study participants included ten volunteer psychologist interviewers. Final Research Proposal Topic My chosen research proposal topic is Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A disorder distinguished by various deficiencies such as, an exertion of attention, effective retention and fluctuating and deferring antipathy. There have been numerous studies presented on this topic. Due to the chronic nature and associated impairments of the disorder. ADHD can affect academic learning, psychological, social and occupational functioning. The investigation in to ADHD will analyze a neuropsychological association with the disorder. The research question represented will focus on whether discrepancies associated with neuropsychological processing in child (ADHD) can be accounted for by dual disorders? Based on the peer-reviewed article summaries, the research design best chosen for this topic is pretest-posttest design. The pretest-posttest design is a quasi-experiment utilizing one group with the same experimental condition, in this case ADHD. The participant in this group are not randomly assigned, and any implemented manipulations are the same across the board for all participants. This design is appropriate for managing data concerning students with ADHD and the neuropsychological effects. References dos Santos, D. J. F., & Alberto, I. M. M. (2016). Developing a family risk assessment tool in adolescent offenders: An exploratory study. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 33(2), 103-113. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu Johnson, J. S. (2015). Qualitative sales research: an exposition of grounded theory. Journal of personal selling & Sales Management, 35(3), 262-273. Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.eduPenprase, B., Oakley, B., Ternes, R., & Driscoll, D. (2015). Do higher dispositions for empathy predispose males toward careers in nursing? A descriptive correlational design. Nursing forum (Vol. 50, No. 1, pp. 1-8). Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu Quirmbach, L. M., Lincoln, A. J., Feinberg-Gizzo, M. J., Ingersoll, B. R., & Andrews, S. M. (2009). Social stories: Mechanisms of effectiveness in increasing game play skills in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder using a pretest posttest repeated measures randomized control group design. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 39(2), 299-32 Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu
Research Proposal: Is Attention Deficit Disorder a Neuropsychological Problem?
Week 5 Discussion The topic that I have chosen for my research proposal is childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. As I find myself back in an early childhood education setting, I am witnessing more and more children diagnosed with this disorder and prescribed medications that are inaffective or extremely harmful. To better understand the effect ADHD has on children, the scientific question is posed: Is Attention Deficit Disorder a Neuropsychological Problem? It is my hypothesis that, ADHD is linked with heterogeneous neuropsychological properties. As several studies have revealed deficiencies in portions of executive functioning relating to neuropsychology. Such as effortful attention, working memory, inhibitory control, planning or set shifting and delay aversion. Indicated signs of ADHD are proven to be chronic in nature and associated with impairment in multiple areas of functioning. These indicators are apparent in various settings including academic learning, psychological and social functioning. As research methods both qualitative and quantitative methods would be useful in obtaining data. Tools such as observation and interviews, as well as questionaires and surveys can be utilized to yield results. According to our reading, “to consider incorporating a mixed methods design is complementarity. Complementarity allow the researcher to gain a fuller understanding of the research problem and/or to clarify a given research result (Hess-Biber, 2011). While the mixed method approach is definitely viable for a research study such as this. Researchers should be cautious of disadvantages the mixed method approach may cause to a study such as. One of the main benefits of qualitative research is its in-depth quality and flexibility. Often when utilizing both methods qualitative data loses its advantages. Yardley and Bishop (2015) states, “One problem is influencing the training of psychologists, which does not yet typically succeed in promoting a sophisticated understanding of which methods to use, how, and when. The result is that researchers with insufficient training in how to match research activities to research objectives may try to use qualitative methods inappropriately – for example, attempting to use small qualitative studies in a way that would be more appropriate to quantitative research (e.g., to test for between group comparisons, infer causal relationships or provide evidence confirming theoretical models)” (para, 4). Based on our course material thus far, qualitative data such as records of individual interviews, focus groups and field notes from observations of behaviors and activities would be greatly beneficial and sufficient in acquiring the information needed to complete this research study. Applying ethical principles would first include informed consent due to the focus of the research is on minors. There is also considered authorizations for medical and psychological records. That will be utilized in further understanding the neuropsychological connection to the disorder and its effect on children.   References: Hesse-Bibber, S. N. (2010). Mixed methods research: Merging theory with practice. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Yardley, L. and Bishop, F.L. (2015). Using mixed methods in health research: Benefits and challenges. British Journal of Health Psychology. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu
Research Proposal: Is Attention Deficit Disorder a Neuropsychological Problem?
RUNNING HEAD: Qualitative Study 6 Research and Critique a Qualitative Study Tashara English PSY 635 Research Design and Methods Instructor: Thomas MacCarty July 18, 2017 Introduction The qualitative research article recognized in this paper is “Attention deficit/hyperactivity and comorbid symptoms in preschoolers: Differences between subgroups in neuropsychological basic deficits” (2014). The study proposed in this article determines if there is an existing relationship between Attention Deficit Disorder and Neuropsychological deficits. The design implemented for this study is a Cluster analysis. According to the article, Using Clustering as a Tool: Mixed Methods in Qualitative Data Analysis, “Cluster analysis as an exploratory tool to support the identification of associations within qualitative data. While not appropriate for all qualitative projects, cluster analysis can be particularly helpful in identifying patterns where numerous cases are studied” (Macia, 2015). Summary The research study focuses on the diverseness of ADHD and the corresponding risk of developmental symptoms of ADHD in preschool children. Using subgroup analysis continuous symptom scores where conducted. It is believed that interaction between environmental and genetic factors correlate with ADHD. Leading to variations in the way the brain functions. This later creates cognitive and behavioral deficits and other symptoms of ADHD. Varied research illustrates a close relationship between ADHD symptoms and neuropsychological deficits particularly in children between the ages of 3-6 years. The research question asks, “Whether corresponding subgroups at risk for ADHD development, can be identified in a preschool sample and whether these subgroups show the assumed neuropsychological deficits”? (Pauli-Pott et al, 2014). Sampling Strategy A sample size of 141 preschool children, 3-6 years of age were randomly selected for this study. The underage participants where accompanied by at least one parent. The sample pairs where obtained from 12 different childcare centers within two cities 15 miles apart. Informational flyers were provided to parents, to establish if there child/children exhibited symptoms of hyperactivity. For the children that showed symptoms, 90 minute assessment sessions were conducted. Parent(s) and children were simultaneously interviewed. Data Analysis Both qualitative and quantitative data was obtained in the study. Cluster analysis of the population was the initial method of obtaining standardized data. Questionnaires correlating to emotional, behavioral and sustainable attention were completed by parents and childcare staff. Exploration linked neuropsychological tasks by equation analysis of variance. Other disparities were controlled and tested such as age, gender and education. During the analysis, predictors of ADHD symptoms and Comorbid problems were used. Inhibition capacity (IC) and delay aversion (DA) were used as measured variables. Findings After a thorough the analysis of various clusters, a strong correlation ADHD symptoms and comorbid problems were associated with inhibition capacity. Further analysis, found no sustainable relationship between delay aversion, ADHD and comorbid problem. Results of the study also established that children diagnosed with ADHD have a direct correspondence to ADHD subgroups. Such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD), where children show symptoms of anxiety and other negative emotions. Conclusion A much debated subject is that a neuropsychological factor associated with the symptoms of ADHD is the sustained attention (SD). This associated relationship is a controversial matter. Many children, especially at the preschool age lack the mental ability to maintain attentiveness for extended periods of time. Conflicting results have surfaced, while some research suggests a significant correlation. Most researches have revealed that the relationship between sustained attention and ADHD is very minimal (Cecilia Wåhlstedt and Gunilla Bohlin, 2010). This study contributed to the explanation of subgroups that are at risk of ADHD symptoms, predominately children of preschool age. However comprehensive the study presented limitations, the lack of longitudinal data, information that could be vital in establishing validity. Ethical considerations that were applied to the study resided in the researchers and their ability to collectively establish a professional stance. Such as consent working with children and privacy, which was established by direct communication via phone calls. Validity of procedures and results was also an ethical concern. The researchers ensured that all data collected was verified through photos and recordings. References: Macia, L. (2015). Using Clustering as a Tool: Mixed Methods in Qualitative Data Analysis. The Qualitative report. 20 (7). Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/docview/1704359650?accountid=32521 Pauli-Pott, U., Dalir, S., Mingebach, T., Roller, A. and Becker, K (2014). Attention deficit/hyperactivity and comorbid symptoms in preschoolers: Differences between subgroups in neuropsychological basic deficits. Child Neuropsychology http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09297049.2013.778236 Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu Wahlstedt, C. and Bohlin, G. (2010). Dsm-Iv-Defined Inattention and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo: Independent and Interactive Relations to Neuropsychological Factors and Comorbidity. Child Neuropsychology, 250-253.

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