Respond to question

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Respond to the post of at least one other learner. Address the following questions in your response:

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  • Do you understand the learner’s summary of the article selected?
  • Do you understand the learner’s explanation of the theme as it is used in the article and as it relates to qualitative analysis?
  • Do you think the learner has clearly presented the rationale given for selecting the theme?

u02d1 – Unit 2 – Discussion 1 – IDENTIFYING QUALITATIVE INQUIRY THEMES IN RESEARCH – Frenda Rodgers

COLLAPSE

IDENTIFYING QUALITATIVE INQUIRY THEMES IN RESEARCH

Introduction

Qualitative Research is primarily exploratory research. It is used to gain an understanding of underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations (Creswell, 2013). According to Creswell (2013) qualitative Research is also used to uncover trends in thought and opinions, and dive deeper into the problem. Qualitative research aims to get a better understanding through first hand experience, truthful reporting, and quotations of actual conversations (Percy, Kostere & Kostere, 2015). It aims to understand how the participants derive meaning from their surroundings, and how their meaning influences their behavior (Creswell, 2013). Qualitative data collection methods vary using unstructured or semi-structured techniques. Some common methods include focus groups (group discussions), individual interviews, and participant observation (Percy, Kostere & Kostere, 2015).

Generic Qualitative Approach

The Domoney and colleagues (2015) qualitative study on mental health service response to human trafficking used a generic qualitative approach. Generic qualitative inquiry investigates people’s reports of their subjective opinions, attitudes, beliefs, or reflections on their experiences, of things in the outer world (Percy, Kostere & Kostere, 2015). According to Percy and colleagues (2015), data collection in this approach typically uses data collection methods that elicit people’s reports on their ideas about things that are outside of themselves. Furthermore, generic qualitative data collection seeks information from representative samples of people about real-world events and processes, or about their experiences (Percy, Kostere & Kostere, 2015).

According to Domoney and colleagues (2015) very little is known about mental health professionals’ experiences of identifying and providing care for trafficked victims. The purpose of this study was to understand how people are identified as potential victims of trafficking within mental health services and the challenges that mental health professionals experience in responding to trafficked victim’s needs (Domoney et al, 2015).

Key Concepts/Phenomena

Key phenomena under investigation in this study are human trafficking, mental health services and mental health professionals. Human trafficking is defined as the recruitment and movement of people, most often through the use of deception, threat, coercion, or the abuse of vulnerability, for the purposes of exploitation (Domoney et al, 2015). According to Domoney and colleagues (2015), research has shown a high prevalence of depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors of human trafficking, and has highlighted the importance of providing access to mental health assessments and appropriate psychological support. Research suggests that mental health professionals lack confidence in responding appropriately to trafficked victims, including how to ask about experiences of trafficking and how to make referrals to support services, as well as feeling under-supported by their organizations (Domoney et al, 2015).

Data Collection Process

Data for this study were provided by the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM) Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) Case Register Interactive Search (CRIS) database (Domoney et al, 2015). The SLaM Patient Journey System (PJS), an integrated electronic clinical record used across all SLaM services that provides a comprehensive record of all clinical information recorded during patients’ contacts with SLaM, has over 200,000 cases which are returnable through the CRIS system (Domoney et al, 2015). According to Domoney and colleagues (2015) the CRIS database allows for searching and retrieval of anonymous full patient records, using tools to ensure patient identifiers are masked. Researches assessed returned records for eligibility. Patients were categorized as having been trafficked if their free text clinical notes indicated that their care team believed that the patient had or may have been trafficked (Domoney et al, 2015). Researchers also independently assessed the eligibility of the first 10 records and assessed an additional random sample of 10%.

Qualitative Approach to Data Analysis

Thematic analysis was used to analyze clinician’s notes and correspondence. Thematic analysis can be used to analyze data collected through a qualitative survey to investigate subjective experiences of objective things (Percy, Kostere & Kostere, 2015).

  1. A random selection of case notes were read and potential codes were noted.
  2. The full sample of case notes were read, with relevant text extracted as described above, and an initial coding framework was developed.
  3. Researcher, Jill Domoney developed a coding framework and combined all codes into potential themes.
  4. Themes were repeatedly checked and refined against the coded extracts and the overall data set, and a thematic map was developed to represent the data in a visual format.
  5. A directed content analysis approach was used to categorize patients according to how they were identified as potential victims of trafficking.
  6. Case records for adults and children (under the age of 18) were analyzed separately to reflect the division of mental health services into adult and child & adolescent services.

Scientific Merit – Generic Qualitative Approach

A generic qualitative approach was the best approach for this study for the following reasons:

(1) The research problem and question required a qualitative or mixed-methods methodology (Percy, Kostere & Kostere, 2015). Qualitative study of electronic health records of trafficked people in contact with secondary mental health services in South East London, England (Domoney et al, 2015).

(2) The focus of the study was to understand how people are identified as potential victims of trafficking within mental health services and the challenges that mental health professionals experience in responding to trafficked victim’s needs (Domoney et al, 2015). Ethnography focuses a group that shares a common culture (Leedy & Ormrod, 2013). According to Leedy and Ormrod (2013), phenomenology attempts to understand people’s perceptions and perspectives as it relates to a particular situation. Domoney and colleagues (2015) study could not use the phenomenology approach because its sample size was not small and the primary data collection method was not lengthy interviews. The sample included 130 trafficked patients, 95 adults and 35 children. In 43 % (41/95) of adult cases and 63 % (22/35) child cases (Domoney et al, 2015). Comprehensive clinical electronic health records for over 200,000 patients in contact with secondary mental health services in South London were searched and retrieved to identify trafficked patients (Domoney et al, 2015). Content analysis was used to establish how people were identified as trafficked, and thematic analysis was used to explore the challenges experienced in responding to mental health needs (Domoney et al, 2015). Lastly, the ground theory approach begins with the data and use the the data to develop a theory (Leedy & Ormrod, 2013). The focus of this study was not to use data to develop a theory.

(3) The researchers had pre-knowledge and/or pre-understanding about human trafficking and mental health services and professionals direct contact with human trafficking victims.

References

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ISBN: 9781412995306.

Domoney, J., Howard, L. M., Abas, M., Broadbent, M., & Oram, S. (2015). Mental health service responses to human trafficking: A qualitative study of professionals’ experiences of providing care. BMC Psychiatry, 15

Percy, W. H., & Kostere, K. (2008). Qualitative research approaches in psychology. Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

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