Respond to at least two colleagues in one of the following ways:
•Offer a suggestion for how psychodynamic theory can be incorporated into practice with a particular population. Be sure to describe the population in your response.
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•Expand on an opposing colleague’s post by explaining whether their perspective changed your view on psychodynamic theory’s consistency with social work values and ethics, why or why not.
Colleague 1: Dalicia
An explanation of how experiences in infancy might affect future relationships and social/emotional functioning as described by psychodynamic theories. Robbins, Chatterjee, & Canda (2012) stated that “in the oral stage (from birth through 12 or 18 months) the infant explores the world through the mouth, which is also the primary source of gratification.” This shows that during the infant stage things are important especially the bond between the infant ant their mother. Robbins, Chatterjee, & Canda (2012) stated that this stage is where the infant is able to being development of mother who is not available to meet the id’s demands; which means the love and hate that an infant experience can have a major impact on their future relationships and social/ emotional functioning. If an infant do not experience love during infant stage would make it hard for the infant as it get older to show and give love to others due to no experience of love.
Then, explain whether you find these theories consistent with social work ethics and values, why or why not. I do not find the theories consistent with the social work ethics and values. I feel that theories have the growth of an infant and child to be more than their age group. I do agree that infants can feel when a mother is distinct from them but depending on the infant development they may cannot experience these emotions until the stage of age 2 and 3 years old. I do feel that how a child is raised would have an effect on the way they look at the world and this is where the social work ethics and values come in. Social work values and ethics due believe that many things are driven by individual’s childhood experiences.
Robbins, S. P., Chatterjee, P., & Canda, E. R. (2012). Contemporary human behavior theory: A critical perspective for social work (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon.
Colleague 2: Shaquahia
Experiences in infancy may affect future relationships and social/emotional functioning as described by several psychodynamic theories. As told by Freud, he superimposed levels of consciousness on developmental phases. Freud strongly believed that lasting feelings a child gains about self or others, strongly depend on resolution of each stage he described. The stages consist of the oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency stage and genital stage. Each stage is for a specific age range and has different milestones in which the group should reach at the particular stage. Following Freud’s theory, created numerous others to either contest and follow through with his findings.
Adler was one of Freud’s first dissidents, whom agreed with the existence of sexuality in the first 5 years but disagreed with intrapsychic conflict being a result of repressed unconscious. Rank and Jung are also dissidents and both have agreed with Freud but altered some of his findings. Female analyst Karen Horney also disagreed with Freud and strongly believed people had the capacity to develop and change. Sullivan believed interactions with others gave a rise in enduring behavior patterns and helped individuals develop images for themselves. Many other theorists continued to apply, extend and reformulate Freud’s work, all of which increased views of human behavior. In my opinion, I do believe infancy to have an effect on future relationships due to infancy being a pertinent learning stage. Behaviors will arise following how one was treated as an infant, whether he/she becomes attached quickly, doesn’t like to be touched, craves affection or etc.
Social Work Ethics and Values
I find these theories consistent with social work ethics and values due to those theories being history for the mental health field. Without analyst such as Freud, would curriculum be as advanced as it is today? According to Robbins, S. P., Chatterjee, P., & Canda, E. R. (2012) psychodynamic theory has provided a substantial core of knowledge that has been applied to social work practice for more than half a century. The history of the theories, and the follow up from different theorists provided a substantial amount of information for the field.
Robbins, S. P., Chatterjee, P., & Canda, E. R. (2012). Contemporary human behavior theory: A critical perspective for social work (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon. Chapter 7, Psychodynamic Theory (pp. 169–200)
Respond to at least two of your colleagues’ posts by:
•Offering additional support for your colleague’s stance from the Learning Resources or peer-reviewed articles
•Offering an alternative interpretation and support with material from the Learning Resources or peer-reviewed articles
•Offering a compromise between the extreme positions and support with material from the Learning Resources or peer-reviewed articles
Colleague 1: Kendra
Sleep disorders affect a large number of people worldwide and may be increasing faster than suspected. Unfortunately, many of these disorders can go unrecognized and untreated in clinical practice. Insomnia remains one of the most common sleep complaints. Importantly, insomnia differs from sleep deprivation in that there is adequate time and opportunity to obtain sleep, but sleep is impaired and has negative consequences for the patient during the daytime. According to Gottlieb, Nieto, Baldwin, et al. (2006), “In the United States, the estimated prevalence of chronic insomnia ranges from 9% to 19%.Women report higher rates than men, and minority and elderly populations are also at an increased risk, with the latter reporting rates of approximately 50%.”
Insomnia is defined as difficulty with sleep initiation, sleep maintenance, or early sleep termination averaging at least three times per week for 3 months. Patients also experience impaired daytime functioning as well. According to Gottlieb, Nieto, Baldwin, et al. (2006), “Most insomnia patients fall into the category of secondary insomnia, meaning that medication, a comorbid illness, exogenous substances (e.g., caffeine, nicotine, alcohol), another sleep disorder, or poor sleep environment are the root cause of symptoms.” Insomnia reduces an individual’s quality of life and is heavily associated with depression and anxiety. If a patient is prescribed sleep aids for conditions where the primary symptom is not insomnia than the medical team needs to ensure that the proper test are preformed to get to the root of the problem. Prescribing medications that are not necessary can put the patient at risk of abusing the drug especially if they are recovering addicts. If the lack of sleep is due to things such as medications, caffeine, alcohol, or even a poor sleep environment then the patient needs to be as honest and open with their care team when completing assessments and evaluations so that detail can be shared and included when making decisions about the patient’s health.
Treatment for insomnia has frequently involved the use of pharmacologic interventions including benzodiazepines and nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic agents such as Zolpidem, Eszopiclone, and Zaleplon. These interventions may have short-term efficacy, but long-term use is not recommended due to issues with dependence, tolerance, as well as medication side effects. (Gottlieb, Nieto, Baldwin, et al. 2006) Interestingly, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to improve sleep quality, as measured by sleep efficiency, time spent in slow-wave sleep, and total sleep time, when compared to pharmacologic intervention or placebo in older adults as well as younger patients. CBT including measures of sleep hygiene, sleep restriction, cognitive therapy, and relaxation may be one of the most effective treatments for insomnia. Internet-based behavioral therapies are now being used and are potentially “scalable” even in under-resourced areas. According to Neubauer (2014), “the FDA-approved insomnia treatment medications include benzodiazepine receptor agonists available in immediate-release, extended-release, and alternative delivery oral absorption formulations; a melatonin receptor agonist; and a histamine receptor antagonist.” As the medical social worker for this scenario if the patient has begun abusing the medication I would take them off of it and prescribed something new with a low dependency rate. The patient may experience side effects and of course would have to adjust to the new medication, but it would be in their best interest since they were abusing the previous medication. I would also refer them to a psychiatrist and a support group as well as recommend med management.
Gottlieb DJ, Redline S, Nieto FJ, Baldwin CM, Newman AB, Resnick HE, et al. Association of usual sleep duration with hypertension: The Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep 2006;29:1009 14.
Lichtblau, L. (2011). Psychopharmacology demystified. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar, Cengage Learning. Chapter 6, “Anxiolytic-Sedative-Hypnotic Drug Pharmacotherapy” (previously read in Week 5)
Neubauer, D. N. (2014). New and emerging pharmacotherapeutic approaches for insomnia. International Review of Psychiatry, 26(2), 214-224. doi:10.3109/09540261.2014.888990
Preston, J. D., O’Neal, J. H., & Talaga, M. C. (2017). Handbook of clinical psychopharmacology for therapists (8th Ed.). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger. Chapter 15, “Other Miscellaneous Disorders” (pp. 161-174)
Colleague 2: Dawn
Treating Sleep Disorders
When prescribing addictive sleep medication to an adolescent who potentially could become addictive to those kinds of medication. Teenagers will use prescription drugs in the same form as recreational drugs (Friedman, 2006). They often will use these drugs for a few reasons to stay awake, fall asleep or school performance to get the effect they are looking for (Friedman, 2006). The problem is they will abuse the drugs and not take as prescribe or for its intended use. The pharmaceutical industry does market these kinds of drug in the amount of $1.8 billion and imposes these drugs as something should be used on a daily basis sedative drugs (Friedman, 2006).The trend toward prescription drugs in teenagers are the prescription drugs that give them a down effect this kind of drugs that give the sedative effect such as Ativan and Trazodone. Since the drugs are prescribed the teenagers get the perception it is safe to take even though they take them not as prescribed the way they should (Friedman, 2006). When they use these types of medication on their developing brain it can have damaging affecting which they do not realize (Friedman, 2006).
This controversy towards teenage drug abuse typically when it comes to preventing teenage prevention with important interventions in preventing drug abuse from happening (Hock, Priester, Iachini, Browne, DeHart, Clone, 2015). This particular study measured effective ways family involvement can minimize the risk for substance-use (Hock et al, 2015). Another study suggested using motivational interviewing with these teams joined with cognitive behavioral therapy they saw improved changes in the teens after 6 months of treatment (Whitten, 2013).
Both these studies have discussed treatment options when it comes to substance abuse in teenagers. Although one is a preventive option and the other is after the fact. I agree with both methods of preventive treatments but the preventive one would be more beneficial. Preventing teenagers from ever using drugs in the first place is an effective way to treat the misuse of prescription drugs. The study suggests when a family is involved it is an effective way to prevent drug abuse in teenagers.
Friedman, R. A. (2006). The changing face of teenage drug abuse—The trend toward prescription drugs. New England Journal of Medicine, 354(14), 1448–1450.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. Hock, R. r., Priester, M., Iachini, A.,
Hock, R. r., Priester, M., Iachini, A., Browne, T., DeHart, D., & Clone, S. (2015). A Review of Family Engagement Measures for Adolescent Substance Use Services. Journal Of Child & Family Studies, 24(12), 3700-3710. doi:10.1007/s10826-015-0178-7
Whitten. L, (2013). Two hour-long sessions a week apart reduce symptoms of substance abuse or dependence. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/nida-notes/2012/12/brief-intervention-helps-adolescents-curb-substance-use