There are 8 questions and each question has multiple choices to choose from. Each question must have at least 350 words and at least one reference per question. QUESTION 1 Please pick one of the foll

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There are 8 questions and each question has multiple choices to choose from. Each question must have at least 350 words and at least one reference per question.

QUESTION 1

Please pick one of the following questions to answer:

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·         Discuss what makes Thales’ method of knowing distinctly philosophical as opposed to mythology and religion.  Also, why do you feel his approach may have been seen as radical?

·         Pick any of the Pre-Socratic philosophers other than Thales and discuss what you feel are his more interesting theories. Be sure to provide some history for this person as well. It would be wise to use Curd’s article for this choice.

QUESTION 2

Please pick one of the following questions to answer:

  • Based on Plato’s dialogue, Apology, assess the charge leveled against Socrates of corrupting the youth of Athens. (a) Do you think Socrates corrupted the youth of Athens? If so, why? If not, why not? (b) Summarize and critically evaluate Socrates’ defense on this particular accusation – was his defense convincing to you or not? Why or why not?
  • Based on Plato’s dialogue, Apology, (a) in what sense does Socrates claim to be wise? (b) Summarize and evaluate the value of the Socratic Method and Socratic wisdom and whether this method and attitude are valuable for a democratic society such as ours.
  • In the Apology, Socrates repeatedly claims that only execution will stop him from doing philosophy (see 29c-d, 30c, and 34e). However, he does offer to pay a fine, one that Plato and others greatly increased (38b). (a) Why do you believe he would be sentenced to death, and (b) what moral principle does Socrates draw upon in defending his stand on never stopping what he was doing?

QUESTION 3

Please pick one of the following questions to answer:

  • Why doesn’t Descartes simply determine what’s real by looking around him and using his sense experience?  What is the reason he felt he needed to adopt radical skepticism, and do you feel he is successful? Be sure to use passages from the Meditations or his Discourse on Method to support your assertions.
  • In Meditation II, Descartes states, “I am; I exist – this is certain.” Explain why Descartes claims that his knowledge about this cannot be doubted? Can you think of a refutation, or does it make good sense?  Why does he have to prove we have immaterial minds? Keep in mind he also concludes that anything he “clearly and distinctly perceives” is something he cannot doubt (See last paragraphs of Meditation VI).
  • In Meditation V, Descartes proffers an ontological argument for God’s existence. Assess that argument and determine if you find it convincing. Then discuss if this argument is enough for him to claim in the last paragraph of Meditation VI, “For from the fact that God is not a deceiver it follows that in cases like these I am completely free from error.” Also, discuss just what “cases” he means.

Question 4

Please pick one of the following questions to answer:

  • What exactly is Empiricism?  Please provide specific examples to support your answer.
  • Do you believe Locke’s primary and secondary qualities adequately explain reality as it was understood in the late 1600s? Can you think of something that exists that has no primary or secondary qualities or both?
  • Why do Empiricist believe there are limits to the knowledge of reality?

QUESTION 5

Please pick one of the following questions to answer:

  • With reference to Pike’s article, how could it be said that Divine Omniscience challenges the idea that humans have free will?
  • With reference to Anselm’s Ontological Argument for the existence of God, evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of his argument.
  • Evaluate the Teleological argument for God’s existence and evaluate its strengths and weaknesses as an empirical argument.

QUESTION 6

Choose what you would like to discuss:

  • The Divine Command Theory
  • The Euthyphro Dilemma
  • Moral Relativism
  • Morality Without God and the like

QUESTION 7

Please pick one of the following questions to answer:

  • Jeremy Bentham argued that when we think about whether someone/something ought to count morally that ” The question is not, Can they reason? nor, Can they talk? but, Can they suffer?” a.) Why would it make sense for a utilitarian like Bentham to make such a statement? b.) Do you think that he’s right about the ability to suffer as what we ought to look at when we’re thinking about whether someone/something counts morally? c.) If we took this seriously what would it mean for our treatment of non-human animals?
  • Immanuel Kant’s moral philosophy is extremely strict about what we ought and ought not do. So strict that he argued that it is always and everywhere wrong to lie. a.) Explain why Kant thought that lying was always wrong using the categorical imperative as a guide. b.) Explain whether you think Kant was right or wrong about this lying business and make sure to use clear examples to help your explanation along. If he was wrong, what’s an example of when it’s morally ok to lie, and if he was right, what’s an example where it looks ok to lie but it really isn’t ok?
  • Kant focused on the intentions behind your actions when assessing the morality of the act, while Bentham and Mill focused on the consequences of your actions when assessing their moral worth. Of the two, consequences and intentions, which do you think is more important when it comes time to assess the morality of actions? Do good intentions save a bad outcome or vice versa? Make sure to provide some clear and specific examples in your explanation. Also note that while it’s possible to look at both intentions and consequences, for any act it looks like we can only really prioritize one of those.

QUESTION 8

Please pick one of the following questions to answer:

  • Discuss and evaluate the reasons Socrates gives for not escaping jail even though he had ample opportunity to do so. What is the nature of the “social contract” here that Socrates is following?
  • How could it be said that the Social Contract Theory produces an orderly society without needing to legislate a particular version of “morality” and what counts as the “good life”? How does the Social Contract avoid problems associated with the Divine Command Theory of morality for a constitutional liberal democracy such as ours in the United States of America?
  • Discuss John Rawls’ idea of the “Veil of Ignorance” and evaluate how it is said to establish a fair distribution of wealth. What is the purpose of the “veil” and what is it supposed to accomplish?

There are 8 questions and each question has multiple choices to choose from. Each question must have at least 350 words and at least one reference per question. QUESTION 1 Please pick one of the foll
QUESTION 1 Please pick one of the following questions to answer: Discuss what makes Thales’ method of knowing distinctly philosophical as opposed to mythology and religion.  Also, why do you feel his approach may have been seen as radical? Pick any of the Pre-Socratic philosophers other than Thales and discuss what you feel are his more interesting theories. Be sure to provide some history for this person as well. It would be wise to use Curd’s article for this choice. QUESTION 2 Please pick one of the following questions to answer: Based on Plato’s dialogue, Apology, assess the charge leveled against Socrates of corrupting the youth of Athens. (a) Do you think Socrates corrupted the youth of Athens? If so, why? If not, why not? (b) Summarize and critically evaluate Socrates’ defense on this particular accusation – was his defense convincing to you or not? Why or why not? Based on Plato’s dialogue, Apology, (a) in what sense does Socrates claim to be wise? (b) Summarize and evaluate the value of the Socratic Method and Socratic wisdom and whether this method and attitude are valuable for a democratic society such as ours. In the Apology, Socrates repeatedly claims that only execution will stop him from doing philosophy (see 29c-d, 30c, and 34e). However, he does offer to pay a fine, one that Plato and others greatly increased (38b). (a) Why do you believe he would be sentenced to death, and (b) what moral principle does Socrates draw upon in defending his stand on never stopping what he was doing? QUESTION 3 Please pick one of the following questions:  Why doesn’t Descartes simply determine what’s real by looking around him and using his sense experience?  What is the reason he felt he needed to adopt radical skepticism, and do you feel he is successful? Be sure to use passages from the Meditations or his Discourse on Method to support your assertions. In Meditation II, Descartes states, “I am; I exist – this is certain.” Explain why Descartes claims that his knowledge about this cannot be doubted? Can you think of a refutation, or does it make good sense?  Why does he have to prove we have immaterial minds? Keep in mind he also concludes that anything he “clearly and distinctly perceives” is something he cannot doubt (See last paragraphs of Meditation VI). In Meditation V, Descartes proffers an ontological argument for God’s existence. Assess that argument and determine if you find it convincing. Then discuss if this argument is enough for him to claim in the last paragraph of Meditation VI, “For from the fact that God is not a deceiver it follows that in cases like these I am completely free from error.” Also, discuss just what “cases” he means. Question 4 Please pick one of the following questions: What exactly is Empiricism?  Please provide specific examples to support your answer. Do you believe Locke’s primary and secondary qualities adequately explain reality as it was understood in the late 1600s? Can you think of something that exists that has no primary or secondary qualities or both? Why do Empiricist believe there are limits to the knowledge of reality? QUESTION 5 Please pick one of the following questions to answer: With reference to Pike’s article, how could it be said that Divine Omniscience challenges the idea that humans have free will? With reference to Anselm’s Ontological Argument for the existence of God, evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of his argument. Evaluate the Teleological argument for God’s existence and evaluate its strengths and weaknesses as an empirical argument.   QUESTION 6 Choose what you would like to discuss: The Divine Command Theory The Euthyphro Dilemma Moral Relativism Morality Without God and the like QUESTION 7 Please pick one of the following questions: Jeremy Bentham argued that when we think about whether someone/something ought to count morally that ” The question is not, Can they reason? nor, Can they talk? but, Can they suffer?” a.) Why would it make sense for a utilitarian like Bentham to make such a statement? b.) Do you think that he’s right about the ability to suffer as what we ought to look at when we’re thinking about whether someone/something counts morally? c.) If we took this seriously what would it mean for our treatment of non-human animals? Immanuel Kant’s moral philosophy is extremely strict about what we ought and ought not do. So strict that he argued that it is always and everywhere wrong to lie. a.) Explain why Kant thought that lying was always wrong using the categorical imperative as a guide. b.) Explain whether you think Kant was right or wrong about this lying business and make sure to use clear examples to help your explanation along. If he was wrong, what’s an example of when it’s morally ok to lie, and if he was right, what’s an example where it looks ok to lie but it really isn’t ok? Kant focused on the intentions behind your actions when assessing the morality of the act, while Bentham and Mill focused on the consequences of your actions when assessing their moral worth. Of the two, consequences and intentions, which do you think is more important when it comes time to assess the morality of actions? Do good intentions save a bad outcome or vice versa? Make sure to provide some clear and specific examples in your explanation. Also note that while it’s possible to look at both intentions and consequences, for any act it looks like we can only really prioritize one of those. QUESTION 8 Please pick one of the following questions to answer: Discuss and evaluate the reasons Socrates gives for not escaping jail even though he had ample opportunity to do so. What is the nature of the “social contract” here that Socrates is following? How could it be said that the Social Contract Theory produces an orderly society without needing to legislate a particular version of “morality” and what counts as the “good life”? How does the Social Contract avoid problems associated with the Divine Command Theory of morality for a constitutional liberal democracy such as ours in the United States of America? Discuss John Rawls’ idea of the “Veil of Ignorance” and evaluate how it is said to establish a fair distribution of wealth. What is the purpose of the “veil” and what is it supposed to accomplish?

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