Unit VII Article Critique This assignment provides you with an opportunity to analyze a real-world, peer-reviewed psychology journal article. You should find an article containing research that examin

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Unit VII Article Critique

This assignment provides you with an opportunity to analyze a real-world, peer-reviewed psychology journal article. You should find an article containing research that examines motivation, emotion, and social psychology.

Begin by visiting school Online Library to locate and choose a journal article in which motivation and emotion are viewed under the lens of social psychology.

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The article must be peer-reviewed and should be no older than 7 years.

Once you have chosen your article, you will write an article critique that addresses the following elements. (I have provided the Article)

Explain the research methodology that was used in the study.

Discuss social factors that influence people or groups to conform to the actions of others.

Indicate how behaviors and motivation are impacted by the presence of others.

Indicate the structures of the brain that are involved in emotion and motivation.

Examine the article’s generalizability to various areas of psychology.

In addition, your article critique should clearly identify the article’s premise and present an insightful and thorough analysis with strong arguments and evidence. You should present your own informed and substantiated opinion on the article’s content. You must use at least one source in addition to your chosen article to support your analysis and opinion.

Your article critique must be a minimum of two pages in length, not including the title and reference pages. All sources used must be properly cited. Your article critique, including all references, must be formatted in APA style.

Unit VII Article Critique This assignment provides you with an opportunity to analyze a real-world, peer-reviewed psychology journal article. You should find an article containing research that examin
International Journal of Developmental Science 14 (2020) 1–7 DOI 10.3233/DEV-190276 IOS Press Viewpoint Research on Sexting and Emotion Regulation Dif culties: A review and Commentary Arta Dodaj ∗ University of Zadar, Zadar, Croatia Kristina Sesar University of Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina Sexting is recognized as a common public issue as well as a prominent issue among researchers. Authors usually de ne sexting as sending, receiving, or for- warding sexually explicit messages or nude, partially nude, or sexually suggestive digital images of one’s self or others via a cell phone, e-mail, Internet, or Social Networking Service (Brown, Keller, & Stern, 2009; Calvert, 2009; Corbett, 2009; Dilberto & Mat- tey, 2009; Halder & Jaishankar, 2014; Jaishankar, 2009; Walker & Moak, 2010). The prevalence of sexting behaviors increases with the spread of new technologies (Bianchi, Morelli, Nappa, Baiocco, & Chirumbolo, 2018). A recent systematic review and meta-analysis of 39 stud- ies (Madigan, Ly, Rash, van Ouytsel, & Temple, 2018), conducted between 2008 and 2016, exam- ining the prevalence of sexting among adolescents, reported that prevalence of sending and receiving sex- ual explicit content ranged from 14.8% to 27.4%, ∗Address for correspondence Arta Dodaj, University of Zadar, Department of Psychology, Obala kralja Petra Kre simira IV, no. 2, 23000 Zadar, Croatia. E-mail: [email protected] and forwarding content without authorization to about 12%. The prevalence of sending nude pho- tos decreases signi cantly, and in linear manner, across increasingly older age groups from 19 to 24 years to 50+ years of age (Wysocki & Childers, 2011). A review of the literature clearly shows that there are two different ways of “understanding” sexting. One group of authors describes sexting as a con- temporary form of intimate communication between young people (D¨ oring, 2014; Hudson & Marshall, 2018). Accordingly, their view seems to be sup- ported by the fact that other authors state that sexting is “normal” in adolescents’ relationships (Mitchell, Finkelhor, Jones, & Wolak, 2012), or represents con- sensual behavior in which both sides participate without coercion (Hasinoff, 2013; Levine, 2013). According to other researchers, sexting is related to certain risk factors, but also negative outcomes. Sex- ting is sometimes used as a tool for blackmailing young people (Kopeck´ y, 2014) or even as a tool for revenge on ex-partners (Walker, Sanci, & Temple- Smith, 2013). ISSN 2192-001X/20/$35.00 © 2020 – IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved 1 A. Dodaj and K. Sesar / Viewpoint: Sexting and Emotion Regulation Young people who engage in sexting have a higher risk of engaging in risky sexual behaviors (Gordon- Messer, Bauermeister, Grodzinski, & Zimmerman, 2013). Further, sexting is more common among young people from dysfunctional families (Gordon- Messer et al., 2013) and in young people with certain character traits, such as extroversion and neuroticism (Delevi & Weisskrich, 2013). More recently some authors have mentioned that dysfunctional styles of emotion regulation may be an important predictor for risky behavior, including sexting (Cooper, Quayle, Jonsson, & Svedin, 2016). Emotion regulation is most widely de ned as the process by which individuals in uence emotions, and how they will experience and express emotions (Gross, 1998). However, recently other authors (e.g. Gratz, Weiss, & Tull, 2015) argued that de ning emotion regulation as a strategy of modulation emo- tions is too simplistic. Therefore, it was proposed a conceptualization of emotion regulation as ability to monitor, accept, and understand emotions (Gratz & Roemer, 2004). Cooper, Wood, Orcutt, and Albino (2003) have suggested that dysfunctional styles of regulating emotions and emotionally driven behav- iors may be an important predictor of risky behaviors in adolescence. Adolescents who lack skills for deal- ing with their emotional experiences may be more likely to engage in risky behaviors in an effort to deal with their negative affect or block out their feelings. The aim of this viewpoint is to examine the existing literature on sexting and emotion regula- tion. To our knowledge, there are no recent reviews speci cally analysing evidence on emotion strategies or abilities among sexters. Looking at the stud- ies that examine association between sexting and emotion regulation across all age categories pro- vided basis for more de nitive conclusions that cannot be drawn from the data based on a single study. Moreover, conclusion drawn from synthesis of data could be informative for future researchers and practitioners. Relation between Sexting and Emotion Regulation Difficulties: A Review of the Literature This systematic review was conducted following the principles set by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA; Liberati, Altman, Tetzlaff, Mulrow, & Gøtzsche, 2009). The electronic literature search was car-ried out using the following databases: EbscoHOST (PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES), ERIC, ResearchGate, SCOPUS, and Web of Science database. The search included any combination of the following terms in the title, abstract, and keywords: sext*, sexting*, sex*, nude*, explicit*, image*, photo*, picture*, message*, video*, control*, rumination*, accep- tance*, suppression*, problem solving*, avoidance*, reappraisal*, self-compassion*, emotion*, affect*, mood*, feeling*, regulation*; competence*, aware- ness*, and tolerance*. The search was performed in April 2019. The inclusion criterion was that sexting and aspect of emotion regulation have been the main focus of the article. Editorials, commentaries, or letters to the edi- tor were excluded from the search results, but we went through their references to check if we missed some published studies. No exclusion criteria were given for location, year of publication, and study design. For language, we restrained the search to English and language mastered by the authors (Croatian, German, and Italian). Overall, our electronic search yielded 56 records, and 29 duplicate results have been excluded (Fig. 1). After additionally exclud- ing articles as summarized in Figure 1, four articles remained that have been included and reviewed. After a thorough and systematic search has been con- ducted, the classi cation framework was designed. Five major themes were identi ed and coded. Themes related to sex were coded from A (women) to B (male); those linked to age were coded with schemes as adolescents (A), adult (B), and both (C); methods themes were coded as computer-based (A) and (paper-and-pencil-questionnaire) survey, while themes related to measurement (sexting and emotion regulation) were coded as standardized instrument (A) or self-developed items (B). Two researchers analysed separately the content and after that checked for consistency. The classi cation framework is pre- sented in Table 1. Four studies (Curro, 2017; Houck et al., 2014; Sesar & Dodaj, 2019; Trub & Starks, 2017) have examined the relation between sexting and emotion regulation. In sum, three of the studies, have indi- cated sexting to be related with dif culties in emotion regulation. Of the four selected studies, two (Sesar & Dodaj, 2019; Trub & Starks, 2017) included a sample of young adults (18–29 years), one (Houck et al., 2014) a sample of early adolescents (12–14 years), and one (Curro, 2017) a variable sample including ado- lescents and adults (18–39). In one study (Trub & 2 International Journal of Developmental Science 1-2/2020, 1–7 A. Dodaj and K. Sesar / Viewpoint: Sexting and Emotion Regulation Figure 1.Flow of the studies selected through the review process. Starks, 2017) respondents were only women in inti- mate relationship, other included sex mixed samples, and there were no studies conducted on males only. All conducted studies were cross-sectional, whereas two (Houck et al., 2014; Trub & Starks, 2017) were computer-based studies while other studies fol- lowed a paper-and-pencil-approach. The majority of the studies measured sexting as sending, receiving, or publishing sexually explicit content (messages, images, and/or videos). In two studies authors used the Sexting Behavior Questionnaire (Curro, 2017; Sesar & Dodaj, 2019), in two others sexting was measured with four (Houck et al., 2014), or three self- developed items (Trub & Starks, 2017). Emotion reg- ulation dif culties were mainly measured using Gratz and Roemer’s (2004) Emotional Regulation Scale (Curro, 2017; Houck et al., 2014; Trub & Starks, 2017). A subscale of the Emotional Regulation Scale (Gratz & Roemer, 2004) and the Self-Ef cacy Ques- tionnaire for Children (Muris, 2002) were used in Houck et al. (2014). The Emotional Regulation Ques- tionnaire (Gross & John, 2003) was used by Sesar and Dodaj (2019) and the modi ed version of the Dif cul-ties in Emotion Regulation Scale (Giromini, Velotti, de Campora, Bonalume, & Cesare Zavattini, 2012) by Curro (2017). Relation between Sexting and Emotion Regulation Difficulties: Research Limitations Our review identi ed a number of limitations in the research of sexting and related emotion reg- ulation dif culties. Several methodological issues must be interpreted as serious limitations: a) dif- ferences across studies in sampling which represent dif culty in comparing data; b) cross-sectional stud- ies cannot clarify questions regarding causality; c) studies used different methods to gather informa- tion about the relation between sexting and emotion regulation dif culties: some of the studies collected data through computer-based questionnaires, others used paper-and-pencil-questionnaires. While some studies examined sexting using only few items, others used multi-item-questionnaires. Regarding emotion regulation dif culties, various components International Journal of Developmental Science 1-2/2020, 1–7 3 A. Dodaj and K. Sesar / Viewpoint: Sexting and Emotion Regulation Table 1 Characteristics of Included Studies in the Systematic Review of Sexting and Emotion Regulation Difficulties Authors (year)/Country of StudySample Size/Age Range Research Design Sexting Measurements Emotion Regulation Measurements Houck et al. (2014) / USA 420 early adolescents, aged 12–14 years Cross-sectional Computer-based surveyFour items measuring sexting behaviors in the last 6 months: 1. “… have you texted someone a sexual picture of yourself?”; 2. “… have you texted someone a sexual message to irt with them?”; 3. “… have you e-mailed or messaged (like on Facebook) someone a sexual picture of yourself?”; 4. “… have you e-mailed or messaged (like on Facebook) someone a sexual message to irt with them?”Two subscales of the Dif culties in Emotion Regulation Scale (Gratz & Roemer, 2004): Lack of Emotional Awareness and Limited Access to Emotion Regulation Strategies. The Emotional Self-Ef cacy subscale of the Self-Ef cacy Questionnaire for Children (Muris, 2002). Trub & Starks (2017) / USA92 women in romantic relationships, aged 18–29 years Cross-sectional Online surveyThree items measuring sexting behaviors: 1. How often have you used your phone to send a nude or nearly nude photo of yourself?; 2. How often have your used your phone to send a sexually explicit or provocative image or message? 3. How often have you engaged in a sexually suggestive or irtatious conversation over text?Dif culties in Emotional Regulation Scale (Gratz & Roemer, 2004) measuring lack of awareness and impulse control dif culties. Curro (2017) / Italia 239 young adults, aged from 18 to 39 years Cross-sectional Paper-and-Pencil QuestionnairesModi ed version of the Sexting Behaviors Scale (Morelli et al., 2016), assessing receiving and sending sexual explicit content.Modi ed version of Dif culties in Emotion Regulation Scale (Giromini et al., 2012), divided in six subscales: Nonacceptance, Goals, Impulse Awareness, Strategies, Clarity. Sesar & Dodaj (2019) / Bosnia & Herzegovina440 students, aged from 18 to 25 years Cross-sectional Paper-and-Pencil QuestionnairesModi ed version of the Sexting Behaviors Scale (Dir, 2012), assessing the frequency of receiving, sending and posting sexually suggestive or provocative texts, photos or videos.Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross & John, 2003) assessing two speci c emotion regulation strategies – cognitive reappraisal (e.g. “I control my emotions by changing the way I think about the situation I’m in.”) and expressive suppression (“I control my emotions by not expressing them.”). 4 International Journal of Developmental Science 1-2/2020, 1–7 A. Dodaj and K. Sesar / Viewpoint: Sexting and Emotion Regulation of emotional regulation dif culties were examined – this limits the opportunity to compare different studies. On the basis of these limitations, we identi ed ve key issues in the process of conducting research with regard to sexting and emotion regulation dif- culties. Sexting was measured very differently in the reviewed studies: Whereas some researchers used standardized self-assessment instruments (Curro, 2017; Sesar & Dodaj, 2019), others used direct items about participation in sexting (Houck et al., 2014; Trub & Starks, 2017). One of the main issues in research on sexting is related to the heterogeneity of defining and measuring sexting. Additionally, age relevant issues have to be considered. The prevalence of sexting decreases sig- ni cantly and linearly across increasingly older age groups from 19 to 24 years to 50+ years of age (Wysocki & Childers, 2011). Studies suggest that older adults are more motivated to regulate their emo- tions and are more effective at doing so than young adults (Birditt & Fingerman, 2005; Blanchard-Fields, Mienaltowski, & Seay, 2007; Carstensen, Pasupathi, Mayr, & Nesselroade, 2000). According to the socio- emotional selectivity theory (Carstensen, Isaacowitz, & Charles, 1999), older adults’ awareness that life- time is shrinking motivates them to focus on the present, emphasizing goals related to emotional sat- isfaction and meaning. There is also evidence that older adults are more effective at regulating emotions. Their self-reported emotional control is higher than that of young adults (e.g., Gross et al., 1997; Law- ton, Kleban, Rajagopal, & Dean, 1992), they report fewer interpersonal tensions (Birditt, Fingerman, & Almeida, 2005), and they use more effective emo- tion regulation strategies to deal with interpersonal tensions (Blanchard-Fields et al., 2007; Blanchard- Fields, Stein, & Watson, 2004). Thus issues related toage differences among sexting and emotion regu- lations skillsshould be taken into account in future studies. For a more complete understanding of sexting and emotion regulation dif culties it is certainly neces- sary to considergender issues. In a review of previous studies focused on individual determinants of sexting Sesar, Dodaj, and Simi´ c (2019) state that men engage in sexting more often than women. Shaming, social isolation, and other forms of punishment are frequent reactions on expressions of girls’ sexuality through the sexting. Women have a more developed ability to establish emotional communication with their envi- ronment, they are more successful in understandingtheir own emotions and the emotions of other people, and they act to a greater degree in accordance with their emotions (Van Deursen, Bolle, Hegner, & Kom- mers, 2015). Thus, it seems important to take gender differences into account when examining the relation between sexting and emotion regulations dif culties. There are notable differences among the reviewed studies in themeasurement of emotion regulation skills. Various aspects of emotion regulation were investigated which could have an effect on the com- parison of studies. For example, two studies (Curro, 2017; Trub & Starks, 2017) reported that dif – culties in controlling impulses is the underlying mechanism in sexting. A study conducted among early adolescents from a high-risk sample (Houck et al., 2014) reported that those who sexts showed less awareness of emotional states and less per- ceived self-ef cacy in emotion regulation compared to those who do not sexts. In the study by Sesar and Dodaj (2019), examining the relation between sexting and two emotion regulation strategies (cog- nitive appraisal and expressive suppression), it was found that there is only difference in cognitive reap- praisal between participant who post and who do not post sexually suggestive content. Thus, future studies should also come to a consensus regard- ing themeasurement of components of emotion regulation. Gross and John (2003) distinguish two types of emotion regulation strategies: “antecedent- focused” and “response-focused“ strategies (Gross & John, 2003). Antecedent-focused strategies are reg- ulatory processes occurring before the onset of an emotional reaction, while response-focused strate- gies occur after the emotional reaction is generated. Some of the frequently examined antecedent-focused emotion regulation strategies are: avoidance (situ- ation selection), problem solving (direct situation modi cation), rumination (deployment of atten- tion toward negative emotions), and reappraisal (changing the way of thinking about potentially emotion-eliciting situation). In the category of response-focused strategies we can distinguish the following: acceptance (active and conscious decision to accept situation), self-compassions (being caring and kind toward oneself in dif cult situation), and suppression (inhibition of ongoing emotion behav- ior). With regard to effectiveness we can categorize the strategies as maladaptive (i.e., avoidance, rumi- nation, suppression) or adaptive (i.e., acceptance, reappraisal, problem solving, and self-compassion) (Visted, Vøllestad, Birkeland Nielsen, & Schanche, 2018). International Journal of Developmental Science 1-2/2020, 1–7 5 A. Dodaj and K. Sesar / Viewpoint: Sexting and Emotion Regulation Conclusion Although research activities on sexting are increas- ing, studies mainly focus on determining the prevalence of sexting or the relation between sex- ting and the consequences or motivation for sexting. Very few studies so far have addressed the relation between sexting and emotion regulation. Our review of the literature and our own experi- ence with conducting research in the eld of sexting and emotion regulation have led us to identify sev- eral key considerations for researchers interested in conducting studies in the future. Most of the ana- lysed studies suggested sexting might be viewed as a deviant behavior with negative consequences on development. However, as there are ndings which do not assert emotion regulation dif cul- ties among sexters we might believe that it could be a part of normal development. We might inte- grate the two views by de ning sexting as deviant and normal behavior with regard to context and outcomes. References Bianchi, D., Morelli, M., Nappa, M. R., Baiocco, R., & Chirumbolo, A. (2018). A bad romance: Sexting motivations and tee dating violence.Journal of Interpersonal Violence. doi:10.1177/0886260518817037 Birditt, K. S., & Fingerman, K. L. (2005). Do we get better at picking our battles? Age group differences in descriptions of behavioral reactions to interpersonal tensions.Journals of Gerontology,60B, 121-128. doi: 10.1093/geronb/60.3.P121 Birditt, K. S., Fingerman, K. L., & Almeida, D. M. (2005). 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Sexting and emotional regula- tion strategies among young adults.Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology,7. doi: 10.6092/2282-1619/2019.7.2008 Sesar, K., Dodaj, A., & Simi´ c, N. (2019). Motivational determi- nants of sexting: Towards a model integrating the research. Psychological Topics, 28. (in press).Trub, L., & Starks, T. J. (2017). Insecure attachments: Attach- ment, emotional regulation, sexting and condomless sex among women in relationships.Computers in Human Behavior,71, 140-147. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2017.01.052 Van Deursen, A., Bolle, C., Hegner, M., & Kommers, P. A. M. (2015). Modeling habitual and addictive smartphone behavior: The role of smartphone usage types, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, age, and gender.Computers in Human Behavior,45, 411-420. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.039 Visted, E. V., Vøllestad, J. J. V., Nielsen, M. M. B. N., & Schanche, E. E. S. (2018). Emotion regulation in current and remitted depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis.Frontiers in Psychology,9, 756. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00756 Walker, J., & Moak, S. (2010). Child’s play or child pornogra- phy: The need for better laws regarding sexting.ACJS Today: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences,35, 1-9. Walker, S., Sanci, L., & Temple-Smith, M. (2013). Sex- ting: Young women’s and men’s views on its nature and origins.Journal of Adolescent Health,52, 697-701. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.01.026 Wysocki, D. K., & Childers, C. D. (2011). Let my ngers do the talking: Sexting and in delity in cyberspace.Sexual- ity & Culture: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly,15, 217-239. doi:10.1007/s12119-011-9091-4 Bio Sketches Arta Dodaj, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Psy- chology from University of Zadar (Croatia). Her research interests are in the area of psychological, behavioural and biological consequences of stressful life events. Kristina Sesar, PhD, is an Associate Professor at the Department of Psychology, University of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as clinical psychol- ogist at the Centre of Mental Health, Siroki Brijeg, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Her current research inter- ests are child maltreatment, bullying, intimate partner violence, and sexting. International Journal of Developmental Science 1-2/2020, 1–7 7 Copyright ofInternational JournalofDevelopmental Scienceisthe property ofIOS Press and its content maynotbecopied oremailed tomultiple sitesorposted toalistserv without the copyright holder’sexpresswrittenpermission. However,usersmayprint, download, oremail articles forindividual use.

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