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This assignment is to complete only 1st milestone for a Final Project. Attached are the guidelines and ruberic for both this milestone assignment along with the Final project guidelines for reference.

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Milestone 1 of Final Project Overview: This assignment will be your first milestone as you begin to work on your final project, the theoretical analysis. In the previous module, you selected a theorist from the list of approved theorists for the theoretical analysis. Milestone One is an outline of Section I: Background of the final project. You do not need to complete a full draft of this section but an outline of the key points. This rubric will help you develop your outline for this assignment. Be sure to refer to the Final Project Guidelines and Rubric document to review the full assignment that you will submit in Module Nine and to see how your outline will be fleshed out later in the course. This will help you understand what needs to be included in your outline. Use the information you have been collecting in your research table to support you in this milestone. Prompt: For this assignment, you will write an outline of Section I of the final project. The outline will list key points of the historical overview of your selected theorist. Next, list key points about the theory’s historical development and how the theory is used today. Background: In this section, you will analyze the key concepts and background of your theory. Be sure to include any supporting research that you plan to use to make your point in each element of the outline. Provide a list of key points on the historical overview of your selected theorist. List some additional information related to biographical information and historical events that influenced the theorist. List key points of the historical development of the theory based on the context of the theorist who you have researched so far in the course. Note any relevant research for quick reference. List the major key points about how your chosen theory compares with the prevailing theory/theories in practice during this time period. How does the theory relate to the work of earlier theorists? Organize a list of the key concepts of your chosen theory as conceived by the theorist. Reference any supporting research for quick retrieval. Discuss how the theory is used today, identifying key points about how the concept is used today and how the theory has changed over time. Rubric Guidelines for Submission: Your outline must be submitted as a Microsoft Word document with 12-point Times New Roman font and one-inch margins. Use an outline format for this assignment. Include a reference page with any sources cited in APA format. Critical Elements Proficient (100%) Needs Improvement (80%) Not Evident (0%) Value Background: Historical Overview Provides a list of the major key historical events that influenced the theorist, including additional supporting relevant research Provides a list of the major key historical events that influenced the theorist, but outline does not reference supporting relevant research or historical context contains inaccuracies Does not provide a list of key historical events that influenced the theorist 25 Background: Historical Development Lists the key points of the historical development of the theory and includes supporting research Lists the key points of the historical development of the theory, but does not include supporting research or the key points contain inaccuracies Does not list any key points about the historical development of the theory 25 Background: Key Concepts Outlines the key concepts of theory, including supporting research Outlines a partial list of the key concepts of the theory, or does not include supporting research Does not outline the key concepts of theory 25 Background: How the Theory Is Used Today Identifies key points about the initial application of the theory and its current use Identifies an incomplete list of key points about the initial application of the theory and its current use Does not identify key points about the initial application of the theory and its current use 25 Total 100%
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Overview The final project for this course incorporates key elements required in your role as an emerging professional in the field of psychology: demonstrate an in-depth knowledge of the subject matter of psychology; provide a nuanced, critical analysis of this subject matter; and illustrate the theory’s relevance in the field by defending its use for real-world problems. You will accomplish these tasks in the final project by producing a theoretical analysis in which you develop and support a position statement regarding the ways the theory you select fits into the larger scope of personality theory. To this end, you will argue the use of your theory in a contemporary theoretical context. To accomplish this, you will do the following: provide a detailed description of a selected theory using appropriate source material as the basis of your description; provide a critical analysis of the theory that addresses the validity of the theory drawing on published research, establishes the contemporary relevance of the theory, identifies strengths and weaknesses of the theory, examines the cultural utility of the theory, and considers the theory within the larger context of personality psychology; and propose an application of the theory to a contemporary issue or phenomenon. The project is divided into three milestones, which will be submitted at various points throughout the course to scaffold learning and ensure quality final submissions. These milestones will be submitted in Modules Three, Five, and Seven. The final product will be submitted in Module Nine. Refer to the Project Theorists document for a list of preapproved theorists and resources. In this assignment, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following course outcomes: Evaluate the use of personality theories in published research for validity and contemporary relevance Analyze contemporary theories in personality psychology for their changing roles in the field over time Defend the use of personality psychology theories by assessing them against alternative theoretical perspectives Illustrate the applicability of theories in personality psychology to contemporary issues and different cultural perspectives Formulate conclusions on the contemporary use of theories in personality psychology based on theoretical analy Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed: Prompt Background: In this section, you will analyze the key concepts and background of your theory. Select your theory and theorist from the list of preapproved theorists. Provide a historical overview of your selected theorist, including relevant biographical information and historical events that influenced the theorist. Analyze the historical development of the theory based on the context of the theorist. Support your response with relevant research. For example, how did your chosen theory compare with the prevailing theory/theories of psychology in practice during this time period? How does the theory relate to the work of earlier theorists? Articulate the key concepts of your chosen theory as conceived by the theorist. Support your response with relevant research. Discuss how the theory is used today, identifying key differences from its initial application. What key concepts in the theory have changed over time, and how has the theory’s role changed? Evaluation: In this section, you will state your position regarding the continuing relevance of the theory in the field of personality psychology. Then, you will be tasked with defending that position in a number of ways, including evaluating its current use, defending it against alternative theoretical positions, and showing its value for real-world problems. Position Statement Develop a position statement regarding your theory’s continued relevance in personality psychology today. Your statement must be supported with logical rationale. Evaluate the validity and accuracy of secondary research using your theory, explaining how effectively it supports your position statement. Be sure to cite specific examples from the research in your response. Evaluate your theory’s appropriateness for a range of cultural perspectives in its contemporary use, and explain how effectively this supports your position statement. Be sure to cite relevant sources in your response. In other words, how well does this theory make testable predictions about human behavior across a range of cultural perspectives, including those of special populations? Alternative Theoretical Positions: For this section, you will select two or more alternative theories in personality psychology and address the following: Compare the theory to alternative theoretical positions that are currently used by researchers in personality psychology. For instance, how do their key concepts compare? Assess the extent to which these alternative positions challenge the validity, weaknesses, or biases of your chosen theory. Be sure to cite specific examples from published research in your response. Defend the contemporary use of the theory against the challenges you identified. Be sure to support your defense with relevant research. Application Apply your selected theory in explaining a real-world problem (e.g., PTSD) or phenomenon (e.g., social media use). How would your theorist understand this problem or phenomenon in terms of its root cause and key characteristics? Be sure to cite relevant research in your response. Assess published secondary research for solutions with the potential to address this problem or phenomenon. Does the contemporary use of your theory provide viable approaches to this problem? What are they? Explain how this application relates to the theory’s larger contemporary relevance. In other words, how does this application demonstrate your theory’s potential to advance knowledge in personality psychology? Conclusion: In this section, you will synthesize your analysis and discuss key takeaways. Your conclusion should accomplish the following: Summarize the changing use of your theory over time, including how its use compares with other theories in personality psychology. How does this theory fit within the spectrum of theories in personality psychology? Based on your previous analysis, draw conclusions on the relevance of the theory moving forward. What can we learn from applications of this theory in contemporary research? Milestone One: Background Milestones In Module Three, you will submit an outline of the background section of the final project. List the principle background ideas such as relevant biographical information and historical events that may have influenced the theorist. Identify the key concepts of your theory. Begin to formulate your ideas on how the theory is used today. This milestone will be graded with the Milestone One Rubric. Milestone Two: Position Statement In Module Five, you will create a draft of Section II, Part A of the final project. You will create a position statement of your selected theory and the theory’s relevance in personality psychology today. Make sure to cite your sources. This milestone will be graded with the Milestone Two Rubric. Milestone Three: Alternative Theoretical Positions and Application In Module Seven, you will write a draft of Section II, Parts B and C of the final project. This draft will have you begin to compare and contrast your selected theory with the diverse range of theories you have explored throughout this course. Then, you will apply contemporary uses of the theory to real-world problems. This milestone will be graded with the Milestone Three Rubric. Final Submission: Theoretical Analysis In Module Nine, you will submit your final project. It should be a complete, polished artifact containing all of the critical elements of the final product. It should reflect the incorporation of feedback gained throughout the course. This submission will be graded with the Final Project Rubric. Deliverables Milestone Deliverable Module Due Grading One Background Three Graded separately; Milestone One Rubric Two Position Statement Five Graded separately; Milestone Two Rubric Three Alternative Theoretical Positions and Application Seven Graded separately; Milestone Three Rubric Final Submission: Theoretical Analysis Nine Graded separately; Final Project Rubric Final Project Rubric Guidelines for Submission: Your theoretical analysis should be 10 to 15 pages in length with double spacing. Use APA style for formatting and citations. Your paper must utilize a minimum of ten scholarly resources, including primary resources from your selected theorist. Instructor Feedback: This activity uses an integrated rubric in Blackboard. Students can view instructor feedback in the Grade Center. For more information, review these instructions. Critical Elements Exemplary (100%) Proficient (90%) Needs Improvement (70%) Not Evident (0%) Value Background: Historical Overview Meets “Proficient” criteria and the overview shows keen insight into historical details that were influential for the theorist Provides a historical overview of the selected theorist, including relevant biographical information and historical events that influenced the theorist Provides a historical overview of the selected theorist, but the overview is cursory or contains inaccuracies Does not provide a historical overview of the selected theorist 6.4 Background: Historical Development Meets “Proficient” criteria and analysis demonstrates a nuanced understanding of the development of the theory Analyzes the historical development of the theory based on the context of the theorist and supports with relevant research Analyzes the historical development of the theory based on the context of the theorist, but analysis is not supported by relevant research, is cursory, or contains inaccuracies Does not analyze the historical development of the theory 6.4 Background: Key Concepts Meets “Proficient” criteria and shows a keen ability to clearly articulate the key concepts of the personality psychology theory as conceived by the theorist Articulates the key concepts of the theory and supports response with relevant research Articulates the key concepts of the chosen theory, but response is unclear, is not supported with relevant research, or contains inaccuracies Does not articulate the key concepts of the theory 6.4 Background: How the Theory Is Used Today Meets “Proficient” criteria and discussion draws cogent connections between the initial application of the theory and its current use Discusses how theory is used today, identifying key differences from its initial application Discusses how theory is used today, identifying differences from its initial application, but response is cursory or contains inaccuracies Does not discuss how theory is used today or identify differences from its initial application 6.4 Evaluation: Position Statement Meets “Proficient” criteria and rationale establishes especially pertinent support for position on the theory’s continued relevance in personality psychology Develops a position statement regarding the theory’s continued relevance in personality psychology today, supported by rationale Develops a position statement regarding the theory’s continued relevance in personality psychology today, but statement is cursory or rationale contains gaps in logic or accuracy Does not develop a position statement regarding the theory’s continued relevance in personality psychology 6.4 Evaluation: Validity and Accuracy Meets “Proficient” criteria and examples are especially well- suited to supporting evaluation of the validity and accuracy of secondary research Evaluates, using specific examples, the validity and accuracy of secondary research that uses the theory, explaining how research supports position statement Evaluates the validity and accuracy of secondary research that uses the theory, but explanation is illogical or evaluation contains gaps in accuracy or support Does not evaluate the validity and accuracy of secondary research that uses the theory 6.4 Evaluation: Cultural Perspectives Meets “Proficient” criteria and sources cited are especially well- suited to supporting the evaluation of the theory’s appropriateness for a range of cultural perspectives in its contemporary use Evaluates, using relevant sources, the theory’s appropriateness for a range of cultural perspectives, explaining how this supports position statement Evaluates the appropriateness of the theory for a range of cultural perspectives, but explanation is illogical or evaluation contains gaps in accuracy or support Does not evaluate appropriateness of the theory for a range of cultural perspectives 6.4 Evaluation: Alternative Theoretical Positions Meets “Proficient” criteria and draws nuanced connections between the chosen theory and alternatives Compares the theory to alternative theoretical positions currently used by researchers in personality psychology Compares the theory to alternative theoretical positions currently used by researchers in personality psychology but comparison is cursory or contains inaccuracies Does not compare the theory to alternative theoretical positions 6.4 Evaluation: Challenge Meets “Proficient” criteria and examples are especially well- suited to supporting assessment of challenges posed by alternative positions in personality psychology Assesses, using specific examples from published research, the extent to which alternative positions challenge the validity, weaknesses, or biases of theory Assesses the extent to which alternative positions challenge the validity, weaknesses, or biases of the chosen theory, but assessment is illogical, lacks support, or contains inaccuracies Does not assess the extent to which alternative positions challenge the theory 6.4 Evaluation: Defend Against the Challenges Meets “Proficient” criteria and research incorporated is especially supportive of theory defense Defends the contemporary use of the theory against the specific challenges identified, supporting with relevant research Defends the contemporary use of the theory against the specific challenges identified, but does not support claims with relevant research or defense is cursory or illogical Does not defend the contemporary use of the theory against the challenges identified 6.4 Evaluation: Apply Meets “Proficient” criteria and research is especially well-suited to illustrating the applicability of the theory to the problem or phenomenon Applies selected theory in explaining a real-world problem or phenomenon, citing relevant research Applies selected theory in explaining a real-world problem or phenomenon, but does not cite relevant research or response is illogical or contains inaccuracies Does not apply selected theory in explaining a real-world problem or phenomenon 6.4 Evaluation: Solutions Meets “Proficient” criteria and assessment shows a sophisticated grasp of the solutions offered by published secondary research Assesses published secondary research for solutions with the potential to address the chosen problem or phenomenon Assesses published secondary research for solutions to address the chosen problem or phenomenon, but assessment is cursory or contains inaccuracies Does not assess published secondary research for solutions to address the chosen problem or phenomenon 6.4 Evaluation: Contemporary Relevance Meets “Proficient” criteria and explanation draws cogent connections between the application and the larger contemporary relevance of the theory Explains how this application relates to the theory’s larger contemporary relevance Explains how this application relates to the theory’s larger contemporary relevance but explanation is cursory or illogical or contains inaccuracies Does not explain how this application relates to the theory’s larger contemporary relevance 6.4 Conclusion: Summary Meets “Proficient” criteria and summary masterfully places the theory’s use in context Summarizes the changing use of the theory over time, including how its use compares with other theories in personality psychology Summarizes the changing use of the theory over time, but summary is lacking in detail or contains inaccuracies Does not summarize the changing use of the theory over time 6.4 Conclusion: Relevance of the Theory Meets “Proficient” criteria and conclusions drawn demonstrate an especially well-supported synthesis of the theoretical analysis Draws conclusions on the relevance of the theory moving forward based on the analysis Draws conclusions on the relevance of the theory moving forward, but conclusions are not based on analysis or contain inaccuracies Does not draw conclusions on the relevance of the theory moving forward 6.4 Articulation of Response Submission is free of errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, and organization and is presented in a professional and easy-to-read format Submission has no major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization Submission has major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that negatively impact readability and articulation of main ideas Submission has critical errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that prevent understanding of ideas 4 Total 100% 2
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Part One: Annotated Bibliography Citation Summary and Applicability to Your Project Additional Notes Carducci, B. J. (2006). The psychology of personality.Oxford: Blackwell. The book explains how personality psychology is part of the field of psychology that deals with the study of personality combined with the variations that exist among individuals. Carducci explains that its point of focus involves the construction of a picture that is of an individual combined with the key psychological processes. By reading the book, one effectively understands the key aspects of personality psychology together with its important to a learner. The book elucidates the relevance of understanding key concepts that need to be involved while attempting to differentiate key psychological differences among an individual. The book provides a better insight on personality psychology Tennen, H. A., Suls, J. M., & Weiner, Irving. (2012). Handbook of Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology.Wiley. Tennen and Weiner explains how the relevance of psychology in the field of academics. He takes a clinical steps of explaining its relevance top various academic scholars considering the fact that there are various factors that needs to be broadly understood. He quickly points out to the relevance of the field to understanding the manner in which human beings are expected to behave and carry out their daily activities. The book covers up critical aspect of personality psychology that needs to be broadly evaluated based on the fact that there are some key aspects that needs to be properly understood in the whole topic of personality psychology. The book gives out the key features of personality psychology Rudman, L. A. (2011). Implicit measures for social and personality psychology. London: Sage Publications. Laurie is keen at pointing out the important concepts in personality psychology. The book combines the critical points of social and behavioral scientist to come up with a precise explanation on the main topics. The ability of the author to properly elucidate the main points is a key fact that creates interest in the book. by reading the book, the reader understands the vital psychology constructs that are needed in the creation of beliefs and feelings among most individual . This is a key point of the personality psychology that the book is keen at pointing out. The book also explains the measures taken in order to understand the features of personality psychology. A proper explanation is given to the topic Staats, W. W. (2011). Behavior and Personality: Psychological Behaviorism.New York: Springer Pub.Co. Walter is keen at combining the critical aspect of psychology to bring out the key points in the book. The book contains a detailed research done on personality psychology for a period of forty years. This effectively explains the ability of the author to interrelate the key facts and the main points in the research. The study involved insights in various directions of the future that education experts need to take. It combines various theories of personality psychology that needs to be understood in a broader perspective considering the fact that there are some key issues involved in the topic of discussion. The book explains all the important factors that lead to personality psychology Twenge, J. (2016). Personality psychology: Understanding yourself and others, books a la carte edition. Place of publication not identified: Prentice Hall. Jean is keen at pointing out the modern approaches that can be used to understand personality psychology. This important aspect involves the use of proper ideologies in an effort to contemplate on the key points involved in the study. He combines various social aspects in order to clearly explain the main points involved in the topic of discussion. This is a key factor that creates interest in the field of study. By reading the book, the reader is able to understand the key aspect of psychology in a broader perspective considering the fact that there are some important factors to put in consideration. It helps a person to understand the factors that lead to different behaviors among individuals. Ashton, M. C. (2013). Individual differences and personality. Amsterdam: Academic Press. The book attempts to explore the individual aspects of psychology in a broader perspective. the author tries to explain how people’s personalities differ from time to time. This is a key aspect of the book that sparks the general interest in a learner. This is considering the fact that there are various aspects of learning that needs to be broadly understood before creating a reliable line of understanding the topics. Ideally, the author is keen at ensuring the main points are properly arranged for the reader to gain a better understanding on the topic that is on discussion. The author explains the factors that leads to different behaviors among individuals. PartTwo: Theory Chart Theory Related to Final Project Key Concepts Historical Context and Historical Figures Validity and Accuracy Applicability of Theory Today Connection to Final Project Ethnocentrism Each person grows in a sub culture that existed before his or her birth. The theory applies to the manner in which we carry out our daily activities and the manner that we relate with each other in the society It applies to the manner in which we communicate and practice our cultures It elucidates the differences in personality traits. Egocentrism The family structure and genetics affects the manner that we think and behave in our current society. The theory clearly explains the character traits of individuals that would be based on the family or genetics It applies to the different perceptions and reactions that people may have when subjected to a specific activity or event. The clearly explains why each person has different characteristics. Dogmatism The tendency of natural conservatism exists in our mind Humans have the tendency of repeating the actions and activities that have been successful in the past. It explains why people have the tendency of repeating past events It elucidates why people imitate other characteristics that other individuals have in possession Humanist The relevance of freewill is clearly explained It gives the broader elucidation why freewill is important in the society as it facilitates the development of personality among individuals. It applies in situations where there is necessity to grant people freewill It explains the involuntary nature of humans Behavioristic The characters of individuals in relation to the surrounding environment The environment plays a key role in influencing the behavior of people. Environment has a key influence on the manner we behave on daily basis It explains the similarity and differences in personalities among people.
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JOURNAL 2 ONE PAGE 4 Reflection on the Sources The sources that I have found profoundly support my theory selected theory of unified theory of personality. As the theory targets to depict the importance of Cognitive-affective personality system coined by Yuichi Shoda and Walter Mischel in the year 1995.The system asserts for individual behavior to be comprehensively understood key interest has to be focused on an individual, their situation and the relationship between the situation and an individual (Mischel & Shoda,1995). The behavior of an individual arises from their own perspective of their situation and not from global personality trait. Inconsistency in behaviors is a just reflection of stable variation of a person. The sources, on the other hand, support this criterion by showing the different ideologies of the theory (Staats, 2011; Twenge, 2016). The sources meet my evaluation criteria since they are all published in English and address the issue of personality psychology. Through the Shapiro Library, I have been able to locate the primary source of my selected theory. The primary source shaded light on the key aspects of the theory and factor of consideration for understanding personality psychology. Summary of the Research Sources The research sources identified shows the historical development of the theory. The principal people who played a vital role in shaping the theory in the way it is today. The contribution of these people is concisely and precisely illustrated. The research method applied in the sources is basically qualitative research by focusing on the publicized peer-reviewed articles as well as reliable books. The research sources were identified by a search of various databases. First, the primary source relating to the theory was identified in the Shapiro Library. Next, the other articles were found in the Google Scholar database and PubMed database. The articles were searched through using different criteria. Namely, the articles that were searched for must have been written in English. There was no time frame for selecting the article to use. Several keywords were used to identify the research source of interest such as “Personality psychology”. References Mischel, W., & Shoda, Y. (1995). A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure. Psychological Review, 102(2), 246–268. Staats, W. W. (2011). Behavior and Personality: Psychological Behaviorism.New York: Springer Pub.Co. Twenge, J. (2016). Personality psychology: Understanding yourself and others, books a la carte edition. Place of publication not identified: Prentice Hall.
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PSY 560 Final Project Theorists Below are the approved theorist selections for your final project. There are primary sources for all theorists in the Shapiro Library. Some of these resources are provided. Continue to research your theorist in the library to find more information for your final project. Theorist Primary Sources (most are from the Shapiro Library) Erich Fromm: Existential Theory An article that addresses validity of one aspect of his theory: Pendse, S. G. (1978). An empirical validity test of Fromm’s personality orientations theory. Journal of General Psychology, 99(1), 133–139. Fromm, E. (2013). Escape from freedom. New York, NY: Open Road Integrated Media. Fromm, E. (1944). Individual and social origins of neurosis. American Sociological Review, 9(4), 380–384. An essay by Fromm on his influences: Fromm, E. (2000). Autobiographical sidelights. International Forum of Psychoanalysis, 9(3/4), 251–253. Veronica Benet‐Martínez: Bicultural Identity Integration An overview article that also delves into some validity issues: Benet‐Martínez, V., & Haritatos, J. (2005). Bicultural identity integration (BII): Components and psychosocial antecedents. Journal of Personality, 73(4), 1015–1050. A book chapter that provides a comprehensive overview: Huynh, Q., Nguyen, A. D., & Benet-Martínez, V. (2011). Bicultural identity integration. In S. J. Schwartz et al. (Eds.), Handbook of identity theory and research (pp. 827–842). Berlin, Germany: Springer Science. Benet-Martínez, V., Lee, F., & Leu, J. (2006). Biculturalism and cognitive complexity: Expertise in cultural representations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37(4), 386–407. Julian B. Rotter: Social Learning Including Locus of Control Rotter, J. B., Fitzgerald, B. J., & Joyce, J. N. (1954). A comparison of some objective measures of expectancy. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 49(1), 111–114. Rotter, J. B. (1960). Some implications of a social learning theory for the prediction of goal directed behavior from testing procedures. Psychological Review, 67(5), 301–316. Rotter, J. B. (1990). Internal versus external control of reinforcement: A case history of a variable. American Psychologist, 45(4), 489–493. Sue, D. W. (1978). Eliminating cultural oppression in counseling: Toward a general theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 25(5), 419–428. Martin Seligman: Positive Psychology and Learned Helplessness The University of Pennsylvania Positive Psychology Center This site allows you to locate comprehensive lists of published research on all aspects of positive psychology. If you click on the research tab at the top of the page and follow through all the subpages, you will find articles on nearly every aspect of positive psychology and learned helplessness. Learned Helplessness Articles: Maier, S. F., & Seligman, M. E. (1976). Learned helplessness: Theory and evidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 105(1), 3–46. Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E., & Teasdale, J. D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87(1), 49–74. Positive Psychology Articles: Seligman, M. E., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5–14. Seligman, M. E., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5), 410–421. Sydney Blatt: Two-Polarities Model (May be of interest to those who want to explore attachment theory) Blatt, S. J., & Levy, K. N. (2003). Attachment theory, psychoanalysis, personality development, and psychopathology. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 23(1), 102–150. Blatt, S. J., Auerbach, J. S., & Levy, K. N. (1997). Mental representations in personality development, psychopathology, and the therapeutic process. Review of General Psychology, 1(4), 351–374. Luyten, P., & Blatt, S. J. (2013). Interpersonal relatedness and self-definition in normal and disrupted personality development: Retrospect and prospect. American Psychologist, 68(3), 172–183. Guisinger, S., & Blatt, S. J. (1994). Individuality and relatedness: Evolution of a fundamental dialectic. American Psychologist, 49(2), 104–111. David Buss: Evolutionary Psychology There are a number of readily available journal articles. Here is one article specifically related to personality: Buss, D. M. (2009). How can evolutionary psychology successfully explain personality and individual differences? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(4), 359–366. Buss, D. M. (1991). Evolutionary personality psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 42(1), 459–491. Buss, D. M. (1995). Evolutionary psychology: A new paradigm for psychological science. Psychological Inquiry, 6(1), 1–30. Confer, J. C., Easton, J. A., Fleischman, D. S., Goetz, C. D., Lewis, D. M., Perilloux, C., & Buss, D. M. (2010). Evolutionary psychology: Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations. American Psychologist, 65(2), 110–126. Robert Neimeyer: An Extension of Personal Construct Theory Neimeyer focuses on constructs within relationships—if you choose Neimeyer, you might also incorporate some of the work of George Kelly on personal construct theory. This is an overview article on constructivist psychotherapies: Neimeyer, R. A. (1993). An appraisal of constructivist psychotherapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(2), 221–234. Neimeyer, G. J., & Neimeyer, R. A. (1985). Relational trajectories: A personal construct contribution. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2(3), 325–349. Theodore Millon uses an evolutionary approach to understanding personality development and personality disorders; there are a number of other important constructs in this theory beyond evolutionary ideas. Millon, T., & Grossman, S. D. (2006). Millon’s evolutionary model for unifying the study of normal and abnormal personality. In S. Strack (Ed.), Differentiating normal and abnormal personality (2nd ed.) (pp. 3–49). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company. Walter Mischel and Yuichi Shoda: Cognitive Affective Personality System Also sometimes called Cognitive Affective Processing System—aiming for a unified theory of personality Mischel, W., & Shoda, Y. (1995). A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure. Psychological Review, 102(2), 246–268. Shoda, Y., LeeTiernan, S., & Mischel, W. (2002). Personality as a dynamical system: Emergence of stability and distinctiveness from intra- and interpersonal interactions. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6(4), 316–325. Karen Horney: Neo-Freudian and Feminist Psychology Horney, K. (1999). The therapeutic process: Essays and lectures. B. J. Paris (Ed.). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Otto Kernberg: Object Relations Theory Model of levels of personality organization— focus on personality disorders—three levels of organization Kernberg, O. F. (2015). Neurobiological correlates of object relations theory: The relationship between neurobiological and psychodynamic development. International Forum of Psychoanalysis, 24(1), 38–46. Kernberg, O.F. (2004). Contemporary controversies in psychoanalytic theory, techniques, and their applications. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Allan Schore: Integration of neuroscience with attachment theory; affect regulation; development of self Schore, A. N. (2000). Parent-infant communication and the neurobiology of emotional development. Paper presented at the Head Start National Research Conference, Washington, DC. Schore, J. R., & Schore, A. N. (2008). Modern attachment theory: The central role of affect regulation in development and treatment. Clinical Social Work Journal, 36(1), 9–20. Viktor Frankl: An Existential Theory Frankl, V. E. (1967). Logotherapy and existentialism. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 4(3), 138–142. Rollo May: Humanism and Existentialism May, R. (1958). The origins and significance of the existential movement in psychology. In R. May, E. Angel, & H. F. Ellenberger (Eds.), Existence: A new dimension in psychiatry and psychology (pp. 3–36). New York, NY, US: Basic Books.

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