# Intro to Logic – Predicate Logic

1. Exercise 58 … (For-Credit of 4 Points) (*)

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(1) Symbolize the following argument,

(2) Establish its validity by a proof, and

(3) “Evaluate” the argument as well.

1. All the beings that have wings can fly.

2. All birds have wings.

C. Therefore, all birds can fly.

NB: Evaluating an argument often calls for subjecting a critical

premise to potential “counterexamples.”

2. Exercise 60 … (For-Credit of 4 Points) (*)

(1) Symbolize & (2) Prove the following argument:

1. All criminals are vicious.

2. Some humans are criminals.

C. Thus some humans are vicious.

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3. on alternative symbols for quantifiers

As was in the Assignment [12], you may the following alternatives

for the two quantifiers.

1. Universal Quantifier

(x) … the same from the textbook

but also you could use this:

(Ax) .. for it as well to make it distinct from the other

2. Existential Quantifier

(Ex)