1. Exercise 58 … (For-Credit of 4 Points) (*)
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(1) Symbolize the following argument,
(2) Establish its validity by a proof, and
(3) “Evaluate” the argument as well.
1. All the beings that have wings can fly.
2. All birds have wings.
C. Therefore, all birds can fly.
NB: Evaluating an argument often calls for subjecting a critical
premise to potential “counterexamples.”
2. Exercise 60 … (For-Credit of 4 Points) (*)
(1) Symbolize & (2) Prove the following argument:
1. All criminals are vicious.
2. Some humans are criminals.
C. Thus some humans are vicious.
3. on alternative symbols for quantifiers
As was in the Assignment , you may the following alternatives
for the two quantifiers.
1. Universal Quantifier
(x) … the same from the textbook
but also you could use this:
(Ax) .. for it as well to make it distinct from the other
2. Existential Quantifier