For Milestone Three, building upon your work for Milestone Two, you will submit a draft of the intervention strategy and implementation plan for your grant proposal. Your draft will answer all of the critical elements in Section III (Intervention Strategy) and Section IV (Implementation Draft) of your final project. For additional details, please refer to the Milestone Three Guidelines and Rubric and Final Project Guidelines and Rubric documents in the Assignment Guidelines and Rubrics section of the course.
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Running head: DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY – ADHD 0 Developmental Theory – ADHD Obinna Okwara Southern New Hampshire University Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Introduction Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a brain disorder that is characterized by continuous inattention patterns and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity, which interferes with normal development and functioning of the human body. ADHD is prevalent in children than it is in adults, and in most cases prevalence in adults developed from childhood to adulthood. In order to diagnose ADHD in children, one needs to go through several steps. According to Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2016), ADHD cannot be diagnosed through testing; this the same case to a number of problems such as anxiety, depression, sleep disorder, and some learning disabilities that can portray similar symptoms. Problem diagnosis The first step to help diagnose ADHD in children is consulting a healthcare practitioner to confirm the symptoms. The diagnosis should be done by a mental health expert, such as a psychiatrist or psychologists, or by a pediatrician. According to Levin (2012), the American Academy Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that mental health experts question teachers, adults, as well as, other adults in the child’s environment regarding the behavior of the child in varying settings, such as school, home or with age mates. It is also important that mental health practitioners determine the possibility of the child having another condition that can help explain the condition better, or that takes place at the same period as ADHD. According to Reynolds, & Kaphaus (2016), health practitioners utilize the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth edition (DSM-5), in diagnosing ADHD. The APA criteria for diagnosing ADHD ensure that individuals get diagnosed and treated for the disorder. Utilizing similar standard across communities, for example, Durham community can aid in determining the number of children diagnosed with ADHD, and the impact of the disorder on public health. Children with ADHD portray persistent patterns of hyperactivity and/or inattention- impulsivity, which interrupts development or functioning. When it comes to inattention, children up to ages 16 can portray 6 or more symptoms and adolescents may portray 5 or more symptoms (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). When it comes to impulsivity and hyperactivity, children aged 6 to 16 years can portray 6 or more symptoms, and adolescents may portray 5 or more symptoms. It is important to note that, in order to diagnose a child as to be suffering from ADHD, a number of hyperactive or inattention-impulsive symptoms must have been present before the child was twelve years. Some symptoms must be present in two or more situations, for example, at home, with peers or school. It must also be proved that the symptoms interrupt the normal school and social life of the child. The symptoms portrayed are not explained better by any other mental disorder, such as anxiety disorder, mood disorder, personality disorder, and dissociative disorder; or the symptoms are not portrayed in the presence of schizophrenia or any other psychotic disorder (Stepping Stones Psychological Services of Princeton, 2015). Theory Survey and Comparison Psychologists and theorist have come up with numerous theories that are centered on the way in which children develop. Some of these theories are referred to as grand theories and they aim to elaborate almost all aspects of the way in which humans alternate and grow through childhood. In some cases, these theories center on a less wide feature of development. There are several theories that can help elaborate ADHD prevalence in children they include, psychosocial development theory and Levinson development theory Psychosocial development theory was developed by Erik Erickson. Erikson believed that human’s development occurred in stages that were because of social experience in the process of growing. Erickson development theory is divided into eight developmental stages. Erikson believed that experiences in previous stage affected experiences in the next stage and that a crisis that is psychosocial in nature occurs in every stage. In other words, psychosocial theory takes into considerations the effect of external factors, society and parents on the development of personality from childhood through adulthood (Sokol, 2016). In this regard, experiences in the different stages are the factors that contribute to the prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents. One of the said causes of ADHD according to the National Health Services (2016) is being born immature, where the brain structure of the child is interfered with by not being complete at the time of birth. An example of such is the experience of the child in its early stages of life is the reason he/she developed ADHD at ages 6. Levinson development theory suggest that the life structure of a person is shaped by their physical and social environment, which involves work and family on primary bases though religion and race are other variables that matter. Levinson believed that experiences in previous stage affected experiences in the next stage. In this regard, prevalence of ADHD according to Levinson theory is contributed by the individual’s physical and social environment in each stage of development. For example, one of the causes of ADHD according to Mayo Clinic, (2016), is being exposed to high intensity of toxic lead at a very young age. Therefore, a child may be diagnosed with ADHD at age 6 due to the exposure at a young age, which is an experience with the physical environment of the child (Capps, 2013). Both Erikson and Levinson believed that experiences in previous stage affected experiences in the next stage. They both explain development in stages and agree that a person’s social life in one stage is likely to affect the stage that follows. This means that prevalence of ADHD by both theories is determined by an experience in a previous stage (Illinois State University, 2016). However, Levinson theory of development touches on the physical environment of a person, which could help in explaining their development problem at a particular stage, for example being exposed to toxic lead is likely to cause the prevalence of ADHD in later stages of life. Erickson does not touch on the physical environment of a person. References American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association. Capps, D. (2013). Levinson’s Theory of Life Structure: The Case for its Universality [PDF Document]. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/002234090005400102 Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2016). Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): SYMPTOMS AND DIAGNOSIS. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/diagnosis.html Illinois State University. (2016). Erickson vs. Levinson Theory. Retrieved from http://psychology.illinoisstate.edu/aehouse/213/units/16_Middle_Adult_Emotional.htm Levin, R.F. (2012). Diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18307376 Mayo Clinic. (2016). Symptoms and causes – Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/adhd/symptoms-causes/dxc-20196181 National Health Services. (2016). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Causes. Retrieved from http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/Pages/Causes.aspx Reynolds, R.C., & Kamphaus, W.R. (2016). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) [PDF Document]. Retrieved from http://images.pearsonclinical.com/images/assets/basc3/basc3resources/DSM5_DiagnosticCriteria_ADHD.pdf Sokol, J.T. (2016). Identity Development throughout the Lifetime: An Examination of Eriksonian Theory. Graduate Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1. Retrieved from http://epublications.marquette.edu/gjcp/vol1/iss2/14 Stepping Stones Psychological Services of Princeton, LLC. (2015). DSM-5 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR ADHD. Retrieved from https://princetonnassaupediatrics.com/files/dsm-criteria-for-adhd-handout.pdf
PSY 638 Final Project Milestone Three Guidelines and Rubric Prompt: Building upon your work for Milestone s One and Two, you will submit a draft of the Intervention Strategy and Implementation Plan sections of your grant proposal. Specifically, the foll owing critical elements must be addressed in your milestone assignment : III. Intervention Strategy : Research and justify the selection of a theoretically supported and effective intervention strategy for addressing the targ et issue. a. Efficacy : Analyze and criti que at least two established intervention strategies for inconsistencies and effectiveness. i. Critically examine intervention strategies for consistency with c urrent developmental theories. ii. How effective were these strategies in addressing their respective issues? To what extent would these intervention strategies address the issue identified in your community? b. Selection : Select an intervention strategy and justify your selection based on its effectiveness and the individual, familial, environmental, cultur al, and political factors. Your strategy should be appropriate for your age -specific population. c. Ethics : Analyze the selected intervention strategy for possible ethical and legal challenges. Consider provider as well as client c oncerns. IV. Implementation P lan : Construct a plan for implementation of the selected intervention strategy in your community. a. Narrative : Compose a narrative to describe the setting, personnel, target population, length of time for service, and cap acity of the proposed program. b. Traini ng : Formulate a strategy for the training of personnel according to the s elected intervention strategy. c. Assessment : Recommend an assessment plan to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention strategy. d. Ethics : Assess the ethical and legal implications for implementing the interventi on strategy in your community. Guidelines for Submission: Your paper must be submitted as a 6–8 page Microsoft Word document with double spacing, 12 -point T imes New Roman font, one – inch margins, and at least five sources c ited in APA format. Instructor Feedback : This activity uses an integrated rubric in Blackboard. Students can view instructor feedback in the Grade Center. For more in formation, review these instructions . Rubric Critical Elements Proficient (100 %) Needs Improvement (75% ) Not Evident (0% ) Value Intervention Strategy: Efficacy Submission evidences an extensive review of the current literature to demonstrate consideration of evidence – based intervention strategies for the identified problem/need (considers a minimum of two intervention strategies at a highly detailed level) Submission evidences a basic review of the current literatur e to demonstrate consideration of evidence -based intervention strategies for the identified problem/need; submission may consider only a single intervention strategy Submission evidences a selective or minimal review of the current literature to demonstrat e consideration of evidence -based intervention strategies for the identified problem/need, and the submission considers only a single intervention strategy 13 Intervention Strategy: Selection Submission evidences a clear selection of an intervention stra tegy based on theoretical and research support considering the age -specific population and community Submission evidences a clear selection of an intervention strategy that may lack a clear basis in theoretical and research support or it may not clearly consider the age -specific population and community Submission evidences a selection of an intervention strategy that lacks a clear basis in theoretical and research support, and it fails to clearly consider the age -specific population and community 13 Inter vention Strategy: Ethics Submission provides an extensive review of the ethical and legal implications for using the selected intervention strategy that considers provider as well as client concerns Submission provides a review of the ethical and legal implications for using the selected intervention strategy that may only consider either provider or client concerns Submission provides a selective or minimal review of the ethical and legal implications for using the selected intervention strategy, and it only considers either provider or client concerns 13 Implementation Plan: Narrative Submission presents a detailed narrative to sufficiently describe the setting, personnel, target population, length of time for service, and capacity of the proposed prog ram Submission presents a narrative that may lack detail to sufficiently describe one or more of the following key components: the setting, personnel, target population, length of time for service, and capacity of the proposed program Submission presents a narrative that lacks detail to sufficiently describe two or more of the following key components: the setting, personnel, target population, length of time for service, and capacity of the proposed program 13 Implementation Plan: Training Submission pr esents a detailed plan that accounts for the training needs of the essential personnel who will supply the services outlined in the intervention strategy Submission presents a plan that accounts for key training needs of the essential personnel who will supply the services outlined in the intervention strategy; this plan may lack the level of detail necessary to demonstrate full consideration of training needs Submission lacks a plan that accounts for the training needs of the essential personnel who will supply the services outlined in the intervention strategy, or the plan as presented is minimal for meeting training needs for the selected intervention 13 Implementation Plan: Assessment Submission provides a detailed plan for assessing the effectiveness of the program/intervention strategy (an essential component of grant submission that allows for programs to be considered “evidence based”) Submission provides a general concept for assessing the effectiveness of the program/intervention strategy, yet it may lack clear direction or statistical concepts to meet the goal of the data collection Submission provides a concept too general for assessing the effectiveness of the program/intervention strategy 13 Implementation Plan: Ethics Submission evidence s a strong assessment of the ethical and legal considerations for implementing the intervention strategy Submission evidences an assessment of the ethical and legal considerations for implementing the intervention strategy; this may lack attention to one or more elements necessary for a sound ethical approach Submission provides minimal consideration of the ethical and legal implications; this submission lacks attention to two or more essential elements necessary for a sound ethical approach 13 Articulat ion of Response Submission has no major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization Submission has some errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that negatively impact readability and articulation of main ideas Submission has critical errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that prevent understanding of ideas 9 Earned Total 100%