Literature Review for the Intervention Proposal

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Literature Review for the Intervention Proposal

In Week One, you created an annotated bibliography. It is now time to take that research and begin working on your Intervention Proposal. One of the main components of an intervention proposal is the literature review. This week you will be drafting a portion of the literature review that you will include in your Week Six Intervention Proposal. For this week, choose three to four articles that include in a mini literature review that you will build on during Week Six to complete your Intervention Proposal. These articles should all be recent (published within the past 10 years). You should also cite other material (e.g., seminal works about the theories) as appropriate.

In your literature review:

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  • State your thesis statement that is your professional opinion.
  • Briefly explain the organization of the paper. For example, if there is a major controversy in this literature, briefly describe the controversy and state that you will present research supporting first one side, and then the other. Or, if three methodologies have been used to address the question, briefly describe them and then state that you will compare the results obtained by the three methods.
  • Begin by broadly discussing the literature. Then, narrow your review to the studies that are most related to your research question. Your literature review should resemble a funnel – wide (broad) at the top and narrow (focused) at the bottom.

    • Ensure that at least one article (but no more than two) supports the opposing side to your thesis.
    • Describe studies in enough detail that the reader has a general sense of the study’s hypothesis, methods, and findings.
    • Evaluate the studies. Do not provide article summaries; rather, provide descriptive and scholarly evaluations of the research.
  • Discuss implications of studies (i.e., your judgment of what the studies show and where to go from here). It is common (and often better) to combine the description and evaluation sections. If you do combine them, do not forget to evaluate them.
  • State your conclusion that reaffirms your professional opinion.

The literature review must be four to six pages, excluding title and reference pages, and it must be formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

Literature Review for the Intervention Proposal
Running head: BULLYING Bullying Bullying literature review Name Course Tutor Date Introduction Bullying is a phenomenon that all individuals are familiar with either directly or indirectly through observing another person perpetrate or become the victim of bullying. Despite the near unanimous opinion that bullying is bad, schools and workplaces fail to stop the practice. Resent suicide deaths caused by bullying have brought bullying to the forefront of public discussion, despite this, the practice persists, and thousands of schoolchildren suffer in silence (Ortega, Mora‐Merchán, & Guarini, 2012). The use of force to intimidate and dominate others not only takes place in school hallways but also in workplaces. A significant number of adults polled in surveys revealed that they experienced some form of bullying (Woodrow & Guest, 2014). This literature review delves deeper into the subject of bullying with the aim understanding the key motivations of bullies, the impact of bullying on victims and possible solutions to the practice. Literature review Bradshaw, & Sawyer. (2007). Bullying and peer victimization at school: Perceptual differences between students and school staff. School Psychology Review, 361. The first peer reviewed article that I assessed to help me understand bullying in schools comes from the Journal of School and Psychology review. The tone of the Journal article suggests that the authors intended it for an audience comprising of individuals in the education sector. In writing the article, the authors set out to understand victimization of students due to bullying and the difference in perception of students and teachers. The authors note that even though their study focused on elementary schools, the lessons apply in numerous environments where many people work together in close proximity (Bradshaw & Sawyer, 2007). In their quest to understand bullying, the authors observed that one of the reasons many schools fail to adopt appropriate measures to deal with bullying is that the staff’s perception of bullying is different from that of the students. To students, bullying is a detestable activity that has serious psychological implication; however, most staff brush off bullying as innocent jostling between students. The authors note the necessity of school staff to take bullying seriously to prevent more deaths and incidences of depression (Bradshaw & Sawyer, 2007). Flaspohler, Elfstrom, Vanderzee, & Birchmeier. (2009). Stand by me: The effects of peer and teacher support in mitigating the impact of bullying on quality of life. Psychology in the Schools, 636-649. The second peer reviewed paper that helped me better understand the issue of bullying in schools is from the Journal of psychology in schools. The authors of the peer-reviewed journal focused their research on the impact of teacher and peer intervention in reducing instances of bullying in schools. The authors intended the article towards an audience comprising of education professionals. In the article, the authors assessed several schools that have taken proactive steps to reduce bullying by involving students and teachers (Flaspohler, Elfstrom, Vanderzee, & Birchmeier, 2009). The authors noted that bullying mitigation strategies that involved peers had a high chance of success as compared to strategies that involved school staff only. Students in schools that implemented bullying mitigation strategies responded high in quality of life. The conclusion of the peer-reviewed article suggests that peer mitigation strategies work best in preventing bullying. Mills, & Carwile. (2009). The good, the bad, and the borderline: Separating teasing from bullying. Communication Education, 276-301. The third peer reviewed article that helped me to understand the issue of bullying comes from the Journal of Communication Education. The authors intended the article to educational institutions and workplaces. The authors intended to delineate teasing from bullying by asking the question; when does teasing cross the line and turn into bullying? By conducting a research, the authors found out that there is no simple way to delineate teasing from bulling. However, the authors found out that in bullying, the victim often feels humiliated and angry towards the bullies while in teasing the victim is ambivalent (Mills & Carwile, 2009). Knowing the difference between bullying and teasing enables school staff and policy makers to address bullying more efficiently (Mills & Carwile, 2009). Ortega, Mora‐Merchán, & Guarini. (2012). The emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying on victims: a European cross‐national study. Aggressive behavior, 342-356. The fourth article used to help me further understand the issue of bullying comes from the Journal of Aggressive behavior. The authors of the peer reviewed article set out to document the emotional impact of bullying on victims. The article, intended towards psychologists, social health workers and individuals working in the education sector, provides some valuable pointers to help victims. The authors note that bullying has serious psychological impact on victims; feelings of helplessness can quickly turn into depression and suicide (Ortega, Mora‐Merchán, & Guarini, 2012). Individuals helping victims of bullying should create a safe environment. The article helped me understand the emotional impact of bullying (Ortega, Mora‐Merchán, & Guarini, 2012). Thornberg, Tenenbaum, Meyers, & Vanegas. (2012). Bystander motivation in bullying incidents: To intervene or not to intervene? Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 13. The fifth peer-reviewed article comes from the Journal of Emergency medicine, it focuses on the factors that motivate bystanders to intervene or fail to intervene in bullying cases. The authors note that the decision of whether to intervene or not to intervene depends on the connection between the bystander and the victim; generally, people only intervene when they know or have an association with the victim (Thornberg, Tenenbaum, Meyers, & Vanegas, 2012). People with a strong moral conviction also tend to intervene and help bullying victims. The implication of the authors’ research is that creating closer bonds between students or workmates helps to alleviate bullying (Thornberg, Tenenbaum, Meyers, & Vanegas, 2012). Wachs. (Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties). Moral disengagement and emotional and social difficulties in bullying and cyberbullying: Differences by participant role . 2012, 347-360. The sixth peer-reviewed journal focusses on the disengagement of morality among bullies and the inadequacy of the society to stop the practice. The authors note that a large number of bullies and cyberbullies have strong moral convictions but nonetheless choose to set aside morals and humiliate their victims; the authors opine that one reason for this is poor self-esteem among bullies (Wachs, 2012). Simply increasing vigilance will not stop bullies; instead, the society should focus on psychological counselling. The article provides some useful pointers on bullying. Williams, & Guerra. (2007). Prevalence and predictors of internet bullying. Journal of adolescent health, S14-S21. The seventh per reviewed journal on bullying focusses on the issue of internet bullying. In 2007, the authors wrote the article to document an alarming new trend, online bullying. The article notes that people active in forums and social media networks are at high risk from bullying, usually perpetrated by acquaintances. The article also notes that cyberbullies attack an individual’s insecurities in a flurry of messages and embarrassing posts intended to humiliate the victim and make them feel worthless (Williams & Guerra, 2007). Cyberbullying leaves deep emotional scarring that can lead to depression and suicide. The increasing popularity of the internet necessitates proper oversight from social medial companies, school staff, and parents to identify cases of online bullying and prevent them from claiming any more lives (Williams & Guerra, 2007). Woodrow, & Guest. (2014). When good HR gets bad results: exploring the challenge of HR implementation in the case of workplace bullying. Human Resource Management Journal, 38-56. The final peer reviewed article that helped me better understand the issue of bullying comes from the Journal of Human resource management. The article delves into the topic of bullying in workplaces. The article, intended towards human resource professionals, notes that there are many similar patterns between workplace bullying and school bullying. Human resource departments usually do not take bullying seriously because it is masked as teasing or competition; this is despite the fact that workplace bullying has a serious impact on employee productivity (Woodrow & Guest, 2014). The article notes that most workplace bullying targets women. The best approach to deal with bullying in schools and in workplaces is to involve peers and encourage them to intervene whenever they encounter an incident of bullying (Woodrow & Guest, 2014). The insights contained in the article helped me further understand the issue of bullying. References Bradshaw, & Sawyer. (2007). Bullying and peer victimization at school: Perceptual differences between students and school staff. School Psychology Review, 361. Flaspohler, Elfstrom, Vanderzee, & Birchmeier. (2009). Stand by me: The effects of peer and teacher support in mitigating the impact of bullying on quality of life. Psychology in the Schools, 636-649. Mills, & Carwile. (2009). The good, the bad, and the borderline: Separating teasing from bullying. Communication Education, 276-301. Ortega, Mora‐Merchán, & Guarini. (2012). The emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying on victims: a European cross‐national study. Aggressive behavior, 342-356. Thornberg, Tenenbaum, Meyers, & Vanegas. (2012). Bystander motivation in bullying incidents: To intervene or not to intervene? Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 13. Wachs. (Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties). Moral disengagement and emotional and social difficulties in bullying and cyberbullying: Differences by participant role . 2012, 347-360. Williams, & Guerra. (2007). Prevalence and predictors of internet bullying. Journal of adolescent health, S14-S21. Woodrow, & Guest. (2014). When good HR gets bad results: exploring the challenge of HR implementation in the case of workplace bullying. Human Resource Management Journal, 38-56.

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